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Certainty
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e CERTAINTY is perfect knowledge that has total security from error, or the mental state of being without doubt . Objectively defined, certainty is total continuity and validity of all foundational inquiry, to the highest degree of precision. Something is certain only if no skepticism can occur. Philosophy
Philosophy
(at least, historical Cartesian philosophy) seeks this state. It is widely held that certainty about the real world is a failed historical enterprise (that is, beyond deductive truths, tautology , etc.). This is in large part due to the power of David Hume
David Hume
's problem of induction
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Acatalepsia
ACATALEPSY (from the Greek α̉-, privative, and καταλαμβάνειν, to seize), in philosophy , is incomprehensibleness , or the impossibility of comprehending or conceiving a thing. Acatalepsy is the incomprehensibility of all things. It is the antithesis of the Stoic doctrine of katalepsis or Apprehension. According to the Stoics, katalepsis was true perception, but to the Pyrrhonists and Academic Skeptics , all perceptions were acataleptic, i.e. bore no conformity to the objects perceived, or, if they did bear any conformity, it could never be known. For the Academic Skeptics acatalepsy meant that human knowledge never amounts to certainty, but only to probability . For the Pyrrhonists it meant that knowledge was limited to the appearances (phantasiai) and the pathē
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Al-Ghazali
Great Seljuq Empire
Great Seljuq Empire
( Nishapur
Nishapur
) :292 Abbasid Caliphate (
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The Incoherence Of The Philosophers
THE INCOHERENCE OF THE PHILOSOPHERS (تهافت الفلاسفة Tahāfut al-Falāsifaʰ in Arabic ) is the title of a landmark 11th-century work by the Persian theologian Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
and a student of the Asharite school of Islamic theology
Islamic theology
criticizing the Avicennian school of early Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
. Muslim philosophers such as Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Al-Farabi
Al-Farabi
(Alpharabius) are denounced in this book. The belief that all causal events and interactions are not the product of material conjunctions but rather the immediate and present Will of God, underlies the work. The text was dramatically successful, and marked a milestone in the ascendance of the Asharite school within Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
and theological discourse
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Philosophical Skepticism
PHILOSOPHICAL SKEPTICISM (UK spelling SCEPTICISM; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge. It is generally agreed that knowledge requires justification. It is not enough to have a true belief: one must also have good reasons for that belief. Skeptics claim that it is not possible to have only an adequate justification. Skepticism is not a single position but covers a range of different positions. In the ancient world there were two main skeptical traditions. Academic skepticism took the dogmatic position that knowledge was not possible; Pyrrhonian skeptics refused to take a dogmatic position on any issue—including skepticism. Radical skepticism ends in the paradoxical claim that one cannot know anything—including that one cannot know about knowing anything. Skepticism can be classified according to its scope
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Pyrrho
PYRRHO (/ˈpɪroʊ/ ; Greek : Πύρρων Pyrrōn, c. 360 BC – c. 270 BC), was a Greek philosopher of Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Philosophy * 3 Indian influences on Pyrrho
Pyrrho
* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links LIFE Pyrrho
Pyrrho
was from Elis
Elis
, on the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
. Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
, quoting from Apollodorus of Athens , says that Pyrrho
Pyrrho
was at first a painter, and that pictures by him were exhibited in the gymnasium at Elis. Later he was diverted to philosophy by the works of Democritus , and according to Diogenes Laertius became acquainted with the Megarian dialectic through Bryson , pupil of Stilpo
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Carlo Rovelli
Loop quantum gravity Relational interpretation of quantum mechanics Thermal time hypothesis Timeless formulation of physical laws Discreteness of space AWARDS Xanthopoulos Award (1995) Pittsburgh Research Award (1995) Prix du Rayonnement International (2004) SCIENTIFIC CAREER FIELDS Theoretical physics
Theoretical physics
INSTITUTIONS University of Pittsburgh, USA Aix- Marseille
Marseille
Université, Marseille, France
France
Università di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
Italy
Syracuse University, Syracuse, USA Yale University, New Haven, USA DOCTORAL ADVISOR Marco Toller INFLUENCES Chris Isham SIGNATURECARLO ROVELLI (born 3 May 1956) is an Italian theoretical physicist and writer who has worked in Italy, the United States and since 2000, in France
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Cartesian Dualism
MIND–BODY DUALISM, or MIND–BODY DUALITY, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical , or that the mind and body are distinct and separable. Thus, it encompasses a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, and between subject and object , and is contrasted with other positions, such as physicalism and enactivism , in the mind–body problem . Aristotle
Aristotle
shared Plato
Plato
's view of multiple souls and further elaborated a hierarchical arrangement, corresponding to the distinctive functions of plants, animals, and people: a nutritive soul of growth and metabolism that all three share; a perceptive soul of pain, pleasure, and desire that only people and other animals share; and the faculty of reason that is unique to people only
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Deductive
DEDUCTIVE REASONING, also DEDUCTIVE LOGIC, LOGICAL DEDUCTION is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion. Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, and links premises with conclusions . If all premises are true, the terms are clear , and the rules of deductive logic are followed, then the conclusion reached is necessarily true . Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
(top-down logic) contrasts with inductive reasoning (bottom-up logic) in the following way: In deductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules that hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse , narrowing the range under consideration until only the conclusion(s) is left
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Tautology (logic)
In logic , a TAUTOLOGY (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula that is true in every possible interpretation . Philosopher
Philosopher
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Ludwig Wittgenstein
first applied the term to redundancies of propositional logic in 1921. (It had been used earlier to refer to rhetorical tautologies , and continues to be used in that alternative sense.) A formula is satisfiable if it is true under at least one interpretation, and thus a tautology is a formula whose negation is unsatisfiable. Unsatisfiable statements, both through negation and affirmation, are known formally as contradictions . A formula that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction is said to be logically contingent . Such a formula can be made either true or false based on the values assigned to its propositional variables. The double turnstile notation S {displaystyle vDash S} is used to indicate that S is a tautology
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David Hume
DAVID HUME (/ˈhjuːm/ ; born DAVID HOME; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS ) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher , historian , economist , and essayist , who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism , skepticism , and naturalism . Hume's empiricist approach to philosophy places him with John Locke
John Locke
, Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
, and Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
as a British Empiricist . Beginning with his A Treatise of Human Nature (1739), Hume strove to create a total naturalistic science of man that examined the psychological basis of human nature
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Averroes
IBN RUSHD (Arabic : ابن رشد‎‎; 14 April 1126 – 10 December 1198), full name (Arabic : أبو الوليد محمد ابن احمد ابن رشد‎, translit. ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad Ibn ʾAḥmad Ibn Rushd‎), often Latinized as AVERROES (/əˈvɛroʊˌiːz/ ), was a medieval Andalusian polymath . He wrote on logic , Aristotelian and Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
, theology , the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence , psychology , political and Andalusian classical music theory, geography , mathematics , and the mediæval sciences of medicine , astronomy , physics , and celestial mechanics . Ibn Rushd
Ibn Rushd
was born in Córdoba , Al Andalus
Al Andalus
(present-day Spain
Spain
), and died at Marrakesh
Marrakesh
in present-day Morocco
Morocco
. His body was interred in his family tomb at Córdoba
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René Descartes
RENé DESCARTES (/ˈdeɪˌkɑːrt/ ; French: ; Latinized : RENATUS CARTESIUS; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher , mathematician , and scientist . Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–49) of his life in the Dutch Republic after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau , Prince of Orange and the Stadtholder of the United Provinces . He is generally considered one of the most notable intellectual representatives of the Dutch Golden Age . Descartes's Meditations on First Philosophy
Meditations on First Philosophy
continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments
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Western Europe
WESTERN EUROPE is the region comprising the western part of Europe
Europe
. Below, some different geographic, geopolitical and cultural definitions of the term are outlined. For centuries, Western Europe
Europe
was defined as the countries with dominant Catholic and Protestant churches, while Eastern Europe
Europe
was dominated by the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
. A more contemporary definition subdivides Western Europe
Europe
into several other regions like Central Europe
Europe
or Northern Europe
Europe

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Descartes
RENé DESCARTES (/ˈdeɪˌkɑːrt/ ; French: ; Latinized : RENATUS CARTESIUS; adjectival form : "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher , mathematician , and scientist . Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. A native of the Kingdom of France, he spent about 20 years (1629–49) of his life in the Dutch Republic after serving for a while in the Dutch States Army of Maurice of Nassau , Prince of Orange and the Stadtholder
Stadtholder
of the United Provinces . He is generally considered one of the most notable intellectual representatives of the Dutch Golden Age . Descartes's Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments
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Meditations On First Philosophy
MEDITATIONS ON FIRST PHILOSOPHY (subtitled IN WHICH THE EXISTENCE OF GOD AND THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL ARE DEMONSTRATED) is a philosophical treatise by René Descartes first published in 1641 (in Latin ). The French translation (by the Duke of Luynes with Descartes' supervision) was published in 1647 as Méditations Métaphysiques. The original Latin title is Meditationes de prima philosophia, in qua Dei existentia et animæ immortalitas demonstratur. The title may contain a misreading by the printer, mistaking animae immortalitas for animae immaterialitas, as suspected already by A. Baillet. The book is made up of six meditations, in which Descartes first discards all belief in things that are not absolutely certain , and then tries to establish what can be known for sure. He wrote the meditations as if he had meditated for six days: each meditation refers to the last one as "yesterday" (In fact, Descartes began work on the Meditations in 1639
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