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Ceremonial Counties Of England
The CEREMONIAL COUNTIES, also referred to as the LIEUTENANCY AREAS OF ENGLAND, are areas of England to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed. Legally the areas in England, as well as in Wales and Scotland, are defined by the Lieutenancies Act 1997 as COUNTIES AND AREAS FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE LIEUTENANCIES IN GREAT BRITAIN, in contrast to the areas used for local government . They are also informally known as GEOGRAPHIC COUNTIES, as often representing more permanent features of English geography, and to distinguish them from counties of England which have a present-day administrative function
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Historic Counties Of England
The HISTORIC COUNTIES OF ENGLAND were established for administration by the Normans , in most cases based on earlier kingdoms and shires established by the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
and others. They ceased to be used for administration with the creation of the administrative counties in 1889. They are alternatively known as ANCIENT COUNTIES or TRADITIONAL COUNTIES. Where they are not included among the modern counties of England
England
they are also known as FORMER COUNTIES. Despite this name, several historic counties continue to be recognised as cultural regions and have their own county days , county flags and boundary signs, many of which were created or registered long after these counties were abandoned as units for administrative purposes
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Norman Conquest Of England
The NORMAN CONQUEST OF ENGLAND was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman , Breton , and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy , later styled as William the Conqueror . William's claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor , who may have encouraged William's hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson . The Norwegian king Harald Hardrada invaded northern England in September 1066 and was victorious at the Battle of Fulford , but Harold defeated and killed him at the Battle of Stamford Bridge on 25 September. Within days, William landed in southern England. Harold marched south to confront him, leaving a significant portion of his army in the north
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Lieutenancy Area
LIEUTENANCY AREAS /lɛfˈtɛnənsiː/ are the separate areas of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
appointed a Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
- the representative of the British monarch
British monarch
. In many cases they have similar demarcation and naming to, but are not necessarily conterminate with, the counties of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. ORIGINIn England, Lieutenancy areas are colloquially known as the ceremonial counties , although this phrase does not appear in any legislation referring to them. The Lieutenancy areas of Scotland
Lieutenancy areas of Scotland
are subdivisions of Scotland that are more or less based on the counties of Scotland , making use of the major cities as separate entities
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom . It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly , and the Isle of Wight . The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries
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Lord Lieutenant
The LORD-LIEUTENANT (/lɛfˈtɛnənt/ ) is the British monarch's personal representative in each county of the United Kingdom. Historically, the Lord-Lieutenant was responsible for organising the county's militia but it is today a largely ceremonial position, usually awarded to a retired notable person in the county
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Lieutenancies Act 1997
The LIEUTENANCIES ACT 1997 (1997 c. 23) is an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, that defines areas that Lord-Lieutenants are appointed to in Great Britain
Great Britain
. It came into force on 1 July 1997. CONTENTS * 1 Creation of modern local government * 2 Local government re-organisation * 3 Passage through Parliament * 4 Lieutenancy areas * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links CREATION OF MODERN LOCAL GOVERNMENTPrior to the Local Government Act 1888
Local Government Act 1888
, a Lord-Lieutenant
Lord-Lieutenant
was appointed to each of the counties . However this Act redefined the areas to be combinations of the new administrative counties and county boroughs . In practice the effect was quite minor, with only a few border differences between the historic and new administrative counties
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Metropolitan And Non-metropolitan Counties Of England
METROPOLITAN AND NON-METROPOLITAN COUNTIES are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England
England
used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London
Greater London
and the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
. As originally constituted, the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties each consisted of multiple districts , had a county council and were also the counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies . Later changes in legislation during the 1980s and 1990s have allowed counties without county councils and 'unitary authority' counties of a single district. Counties for the purposes of Lieutenancies are now defined separately , based on the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. In 2009, there were further structural changes in some areas , resulting in a total of 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. These 83 counties collectively consist of 292 districts or district-level subdivisions, i.e
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Counties Of England
COUNTIES OF ENGLAND are areas used for the purposes of administrative, geographical, cultural or political demarcation. For administrative purposes, England outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly is divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties . These counties may consist of a single district or be divided into several districts. As of April 2009, 27 of these counties are divided into districts and have a county council . Six of the counties, covering the major conurbations , are known as metropolitan counties , which do not have county councils, although some functions are organised on a county-wide basis by their districts (metropolitan boroughs ) acting jointly. All of England (including Greater London and the Isles of Scilly) is also divided into 48 ceremonial counties , which are also known as geographic counties
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Greater London
LONDON, or GREATER LONDON, is a county and region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London . It is organised into 33 local government districts : the 32 London boroughs (which makes up the ceremonial county of Greater London) and the City of London (which is a separate county but still part of the region). The Greater London Authority , based in Southwark , is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963 . Administratively, Greater London was first established as a _sui generis _ council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000
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County Corporate
A COUNTY CORPORATE or CORPORATE COUNTY was a type of subnational division used for local government in England
England
, Ireland
Ireland
, and Wales
Wales
. Counties corporate were created during the Middle Ages , and were effectively small self-governing county-empowered entities such as towns or cities which were deemed to be important enough to be independent from their counties. A county corporate could also be known as a county of itself. While they were administratively distinct counties, with their own sheriffs and Lord lieutenancies , most of the counties corporate remained part of the "county at large" for purposes such as the county assize courts . From the 17th century the separate jurisdictions of the counties corporate were increasingly merged with that of the surrounding county, so that by the late 19th century the title was mostly a ceremonial one
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Yorkshire
YORKSHIRE (/ˈjɔːrkʃər/ or /ˈjɔːrkʃɪər/ ; abbreviated YORKS), formally known as the COUNTY OF YORK, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom . Due to its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have also been subject to periodic reform . Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region . The name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use in the media and the military , and also features in the titles of current areas of civil administration such as North Yorkshire , South Yorkshire , West Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire
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Local Government Act 1888
The LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT 1888 (51 -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;"> * ^ Order of the President of the Local Government Board, 19 March 1889 (Printed in The Times, 21 March 1889) * ^ B. Keith-Lucas, Government of the County in England, The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 1. (March 1956), pp. 44-55. * ^ Amendment by Walter Barttelot , MP for Horsham, 13 July 1888 (The Times, 14 July 1888) * ^ Amendment by Captain Selwyn, 13 July 1888 (The Times, 14 July 1888) * ^ Amendment by Lord Bristol, 6 August 1888 (The Times, 7 August 1888) * ^ Amendment by Lord Exeter, 6 August 1888 (The Times, 7 August 1888) * ^ Davis, J., Reforming London, (1988) * ^ Section 59 * ^ Section 59(a) * ^ A B C D Section 31 * ^ Section 32 * ^ Section 59(b) * ^ Local Government Board's Provisional Order Confirmation (No.2) Act 1889 (52 & 53 Vict. C.clxxvii) * ^ "Urban Sanitary Authorities"
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County Council
A COUNTY COUNCIL is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. CONTENTS* 1 Ireland * 1.1 History * 1.1.1 1899-1922 * 1.1.2 1922 to present * 2 Taiwan * 2.1 Taiwan Province
Taiwan Province
* 2.2 Fujian Province * 3 United Kingdom * 3.1 England * 3.1.1 History * 3.1.2 2009 reforms * 3.2 Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
* 3.3 Scotland
Scotland
* 3.3.1 History * 3.4 Wales
Wales
* 3.4.1 History * 4 United States * 5 Other countries * 6 References IRELANDThe county councils created under British rule in 1899 continue to exist in Ireland, although they are now governed under legislation passed by Oireachtas Éireann , principally the Local Government Act 2001
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Quarter Sessions
The COURTS OF QUARTER SESSIONS or QUARTER SESSIONS were local courts traditionally held at four set times each year in the Kingdom of England (including Wales
Wales
) from 1388 until 1707, then in 18th-century Great Britain , in the later United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and in other dominions of the British Empire
British Empire
. Quarter sessions generally sat in the seat of each county and county borough . They were abolished in England and Wales
Wales
in 1972, when the Courts Act 1971
Courts Act 1971
replaced them and the assizes with a single permanent Crown Court
Court
. In Scotland they survived until 1975, when they were abolished and replaced by district courts and later by justice of the peace courts . The quarter sessions were named after the quarter days on which they met in England and Wales
Wales
from 1388
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Administrative Counties
An ADMINISTRATIVE COUNTY was an administrative division in England and Wales and Ireland
Ireland
from 1888 to 1974, used for the purposes of local government . They are now abolished, although in Northern Ireland
Ireland
their former areas are used as the basis for lieutenancy . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 England and Wales
England and Wales
* 1.2 Scotland
Scotland
* 1.3 Ireland
Ireland
* 2 New entities * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYENGLAND AND WALES Further information: Administrative counties of England Further information: Subdivisions of Wales The term was introduced for England and Wales
England and Wales
by the Local Government Act 1888 , which created county councils for various areas, and called them 'administrative counties' to distinguish them from the continuing statutory counties
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