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Central Semitic Languages
The CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(which include Aramaic , Ugaritic
Ugaritic
, and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician ). In this reckoning, Central Semitic itself is one of three divisions of Semitic along with East Semitic
East Semitic
( Akkadian
Akkadian
and Eblaite ) and South Semitic (South Arabian and the Ethiopian Semitic languages
Semitic languages
)
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Triconsonantal Root
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term CONSONANTAL ROOT). Such abstract consonantal roots are used in the formation of actual words by adding the vowels and non-root consonants (or "transfixes ") which go with a particular morphological category around the root consonants, in an appropriate way, generally following specific patterns. It is a peculiarity of Semitic linguistics that a large majority of these consonantal roots are triliterals (although there are a number of quadriliterals, and in some languages also biliterals)
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Prefix
A PREFIX is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix un- is added to the word happy, it creates the word unhappy. Particularly in the study of languages, a prefix is also called a PREFORMATIVE, because it alters the form of the words to which it is affixed. Prefixes, like other affixes, can be either inflectional , creating a new form of the word with the same basic meaning and same lexical category (but playing a different role in the sentence), or derivational , creating a new word with a new semantic meaning and sometimes also a different lexical category . Prefixes, like all other affixes, are usually bound morphemes . In English , there are no inflectional prefixes; English uses suffixes instead for that purpose
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Inflectional Paradigm
In grammar , INFLECTION or INFLEXION – sometimes called ACCIDENCE – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense , case , voice , aspect , person , number , gender , and mood . The inflection of verbs is also called conjugation , and one can refer to the inflection of nouns , adjectives , adverbs , pronouns , determiners , participles , prepositions , postpositions , numerals , articles etc, as declension . An inflection expresses one or more grammatical categories with a prefix , suffix or infix , or another internal modification such as a vowel change. For example, the Latin verb ducam, meaning "I will lead", includes the suffix -am, expressing person (first), number (singular), and tense (future). The use of this suffix is an inflection. In contrast, in the English clause "I will lead", the word lead is not inflected for any of person, number, or tense; it is simply the bare form of a verb
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SIL Ethnologue
ETHNOLOGUE: LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, and is now published annually by SIL International , a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization. SIL's main purpose is to study, develop and document languages in order to promote literacy and for religious purposes. As of 2017, Ethnologue contains web-based information on about 7,099 languages in its 20th edition, including the number of speakers, location, dialects, linguistic affiliations, autonym , availability of the Bible
Bible
in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, and an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS)
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Morphological Leveling
In linguistics , MORPHOLOGICAL LEVELING or PARADIGM LEVELING is the generalization of an inflection across a paradigm or between words. For example, the extension by analogy of the (more frequent) third-person singular form is to other persons, such as I is and they is, observed in some dialects of English such as African American Vernacular English , is an example of leveling, as is the reanalysis of English strong verbs as weak verbs , such as bode becoming bided, swoll becoming swelled, and awoke becoming awakened. The original strong forms of these and most other leveled verbs are readily understood by modern English speakers, but are seldom used
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Middle East
The MIDDLE EAST is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia
Asia
, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European ), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa
North Africa
). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East ) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs
Arabs
, Turks , Persians , Kurds
Kurds
, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population
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Ejective
In phonetics , EJECTIVE CONSONANTS are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream . In the phonology of a particular language, ejectives may contrast with aspirated , voiced and tenuis consonants . Some languages have glottalized sonorants with creaky voice that pattern with ejectives phonologically, and other languages have ejectives that pattern with implosives , which has led to phonologists positing a phonological class of glottalic consonants , which includes ejectives
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Proto-Semitic
The PROTO-SEMITIC LANGUAGE is the hypothetical proto-language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages
Semitic languages
of the Middle East
Middle East
. Its original Urheimat has been proposed to be in northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and the Levant
Levant
, with a 2009 study proposing that it may have originated about 7400 BC . Semitic is considered a subfamily of the larger Afroasiatic
Afroasiatic
macrofamily
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Voiceless Uvular Stop
The VOICELESS UVULAR STOP or VOICELESS UVULAR PLOSIVE is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages . It is pronounced like a voiceless velar stop , except that the tongue makes contact not on the soft palate but on the uvula . The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨q⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is q. There is also the VOICELESS PRE-UVULAR STOP in some languages, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless uvular stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless velar stop. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨q̟⟩ or ⟨q˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨q⟩) or ⟨k̠⟩ (retracted ⟨k⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbols are q_+ and k_-, respectively
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Broken Plural
In linguistics , a BROKEN PLURAL (or internal plural) is an irregular plural form of a noun or adjective found in the Semitic languages
Semitic languages
and other Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
such as Berber . Broken plurals are formed by changing the pattern of consonants and vowels inside the singular form. They contrast with SOUND PLURALS (or external plurals), which are formed by adding a suffix . It is distinct from Germanic umlaut , a form of vowel mutation found in Germanic languages. There have been a variety of theoretical approaches to understanding these processes and varied attempts to produce systems or rules that can systematize these plural forms. While the phenomenon is known from several Semitic languages, nowhere has it become as productive as in Arabic
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Participle
A PARTICIPLE (glossing abbreviation PTCP) is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun , noun phrase , verb , or verb phrase , and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb . A simpler, but less comprehensive, definition is that it is a verbal adjective. It is one of the types of nonfinite verb forms. Its name comes from the Latin
Latin
participium, a calque of Greek metochḗ "partaking" or "sharing"; it is so named because the Ancient Greek and Latin
Latin
participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender , number , case ) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice ). Like other parts of the verb, participles can be either active (e.g. breaking) or passive (e.g. broken). Participles are also often associated with certain verbal aspects or tenses
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Yemenite Hebrew
YEMENITE HEBREW (Hebrew : עִבְרִית תֵּימָנִית‎ Ivrit Teimanit), also referred to as TEMANI HEBREW, is the pronunciation system for Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews . Yemenite Jews brought their language to Israel through immigration. Their first organized immigration to the region began in 1882. Yemenite Jewish elders rehearsing oral lessons (1906–1918) Yemenite Hebrew
Yemenite Hebrew
has been studied by scholars, many of whom believe it to contain the most ancient phonetic and grammatical features. The Yemenites, themselves, among all main Jewish diaspora groups, have garnered considerable praise because of their strict application of the laws of grammar. The notable Tunisian rabbi and scholar, Rabbi Meir Mazuz , once said of Yemenites that they are good grammarians
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Sephardi Hebrew
SEPHARDI HEBREW (or SEPHARADI HEBREW) is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice. Its phonology was influenced by contact languages such as Spanish , Ladino , Arabic , Portuguese and Greek . CONTENTS * 1 Phonology of Sephardi Hebrew * 2 Variants * 3 History * 4 Influence on Israeli Hebrew * 5 Endnotes * 6 See also * 7 References PHONOLOGY OF SEPHARDI HEBREWThere is some variation between the various forms of Sephardi Hebrew, but the following generalisations may be made. * The stress tends to fall on the last syllable wherever this is the case in Biblical Hebrew * The letter ע (`ayin) is realized as a sound, though the specific sound varies between communities
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Ashkenazi Hebrew
ASHKENAZI HEBREW (Hebrew : הגייה אשכנזית‎‎ Hagiyya Ashkenazit, Yiddish : אַשכּנזישע הבֿרה‎), is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use and study by Ashkenazi Jewish practice. It survives today as a separate religious dialect within some parts of the Haredi community, even alongside Modern Hebrew in Israel , although its use amongst non-Israeli Ashkenazi Jews has greatly diminished. CONTENTS * 1 Features * 2 Variants * 3 History * 4 Influence on modern Hebrew * 5 Endnotes * 6 See also * 7 Literature FEATURESAs it is used parallel with Modern Hebrew, its phonological differences are clearly recognized: * א ʾālep̄ and ע ʿáyin are completely silent at all times in most forms of Ashkenazi Hebrew, where they are frequently both pronounced as a glottal stop in modern Hebrew
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Mizrahi Hebrew
MIZRAHI HEBREW, or EASTERN HEBREW, refers to any of the pronunciation systems for Biblical Hebrew used liturgically by Mizrahi Jews , that is, Jews from Arab countries or further east and with a background of Arabic , Persian , or other languages of the Middle East and Asia . As such, Mizrahi Hebrew is actually a blanket term for many dialects. Sephardi Hebrew is not considered one of these even if it has been spoken in the Middle East and North Africa . The Sephardim were expellees from Spain , and settled among the Mizrahim, but in countries such as Syria and Morocco, there was a fairly high degree of convergence between the Sephardi and the local pronunciations of Hebrew. Yemenite Hebrew is also considered quite separate, as it has a wholly different system for the pronunciation of vowels
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