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Central Semitic Languages
The Central Semitic languages[2][3] are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(which include Aramaic, Ugaritic, and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician)
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Middle East
The Middle East[note 1] is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians
Circassians
(including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Morphological Leveling
In linguistics, morphological leveling or paradigm leveling is the generalization of an inflection across a paradigm or between words.[1] For example, the extension by analogy[2][3][4] of the (more frequent) third-person singular form is to other persons, such as I is and they is, observed in some dialects of English such as African American Vernacular English, is an example of leveling, as is the reanalysis of English strong verbs as weak verbs, such as bode becoming bided, swoll becoming swelled, and awoke becoming awakened. The original strong forms of these and most other leveled verbs are readily understood by modern English speakers, but are seldom used
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Triconsonantal Root
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root). Such abstract consonantal roots are used in the formation of actual words by adding the vowels and non-root consonants (or "transfixes") which go with a particular morphological category around the root consonants, in an appropriate way, generally following specific patterns
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Prefix
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.[1] Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix un- is added to the word happy, it creates the word unhappy
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Inflectional Paradigm
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood. The inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles etc, as declension. An inflection expresses one or more grammatical categories with a prefix, suffix or infix, or another internal modification such as a vowel change.[2] For example, the Latin verb ducam, meaning "I will lead", includes the suffix -am, expressing person (first), number (singular), and tense (future). The use of this suffix is an inflection
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SIL Ethnologue
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, and is now published annually by SIL International, a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization
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South Central Semitic
The Arabic language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic, including:Old Arabic, the language of northwestern Arabia in the pre-Islamic period and its varieties:Northern Old Arabic (including Safaitic and Hismaic)Nabataean ArabicOld HejaziClassical Arabic, the liturgical language of Islam which emerged in the 7th century AD, Neo-Arabic, the descendants of spoken Old Arabic, including:Maltese Colloquial ArabicWestern Arabic Eastern ArabicModern Standard Arabic, the standardized variety of Arabic used since the 19th century and modernized version of the liturgical language of IslamSee also[edit]Arab (other) Arab (etymology)Notes[edit]^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Arabian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Literature[edit]Cantineau, Jean (1955)
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Broken Plural
In linguistics, a broken plural (or internal plural) is an irregular plural form of a noun or adjective found in the Semitic languages and other Afroasiatic languages such as Berber. Broken plurals are formed by changing the pattern of consonants and vowels inside the singular form. They contrast with sound plurals (or external plurals), which are formed by adding a suffix, but are also formally distinct from phenomena like the Germanic umlaut, a form of vowel mutation used in plural forms in Germanic languages. There have been a variety of theoretical approaches to understanding these processes and varied attempts to produce systems or rules that can systematize these plural forms.[1]. But the question of the origin of the broken plurals for the languages that exhibit them is not settled though there are certain probabilities in distributions of specific plural forms in relation to specific singular patterns
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Participle
A participle (glossing abbreviation PTCP) is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.[1] It is one of the types of nonfinite verb forms. Its name comes from the Latin
Latin
participium,[2] a calque of Greek metochḗ "partaking" or "sharing";[3] it is so named because the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice). Like other parts of the verb, participles can be either active (e.g. breaking) or passive (e.g. broken). Participles are also often associated with certain verbal aspects or tenses
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Affix
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form. Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed. They are bound morphemes by definition; prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes. Affixations, the linguistic process speakers use form different words by adding morphemes (affixes) at the beginning (prefixation), the middle (infixation) or the end (suffixation) of words.Contents1 Positional categories of affixes 2 Lexical affixes 3 Orthographic affixes 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksPositional categories of affixes[edit] Affixes are divided into many categories, depending on their position with reference to the stem. Prefix
Prefix
and suffix are extremely common terms. Infix
Infix
and circumfix are less so, as they are not important in European languages
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Robert Hetzron
Robert Hetzron, born Herzog (31 December 1937, Budapest – 12 August 1997, Santa Barbara, California), was a Hungarian-born linguist known for his work on the comparative study of Afro-Asiatic languages, as well as for his study of Cushitic and Ethiopian Semitic languages.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Selected publications2.1 Hungarian Language 2.2 Cushitic languages 2.3 Ethiopian Semitic languages 2.4 Comparative study of Semitic and Afroasiatic languages3 Commemoration 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Hungary, Hetzron studied at the University of Budapest. After the 1956 Uprising in Hungary, he moved to Vienna and then to Paris, where he studied with André Martinet and Joseph Tubiana. In 1960/61 he studied Finnish at Jyväskylä, Somali in London, and Italian at Perugia. He received his M.A. degree at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1961-1964 under the supervision of Hans Jakob Polotsky, and his Ph.D
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Voiceless Uvular Stop
The voiceless uvular stop or voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is pronounced like a voiceless velar stop [k], except that the tongue makes contact not on the soft palate but on the uvula. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
that represents this sound is ⟨q⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is q. There is also the voiceless pre-uvular stop[1] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiceless uvular stop, though not as front as the prototypical voiceless velar stop. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨q̟⟩ or ⟨q˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨q⟩) or ⟨k̠⟩ (retracted ⟨k⟩)
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East Semitic Languages
The East Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are one of six current divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic. The East Semitic group is attested by two distinct languages, Akkadian
Akkadian
and Eblaite, both of which have been long extinct. They stand apart from other Semitic languages, traditionally called West Semitic, in a number of respects. Historically, it is believed that this linguistic situation came about as speakers of East Semitic languages wandered further east, settling in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
during the third millennium BCE, as attested by Akkadian
Akkadian
texts from this period. By the beginning of the second millennium BCE, East Semitic languages, in particular Akkadian, had come to dominate the region
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