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Center Pivot Irrigation
Center-pivot irrigation (sometimes called central pivot irrigation), also called water-wheel and circle irrigation, is a method of crop irrigation in which equipment rotates around a pivot and crops are watered with sprinklers.[1][2] A circular area centered on the pivot is irrigated, often creating a circular pattern in crops when viewed from above (sometimes referred to as crop circles).[3] Most center pivots were initially water-powered, and today most are propelled by electric motors.Contents1 History 2 Overview 3 Linear/lateral move irrigation machines 4 Benefits 5 Role in water table reduction 6 Role in culture 7 See also 8 References 9 Additional sources 10 External linksHistory[edit] Center-pivot irrigation was invented in 1940[4] by farmer Frank Zybach,[5] who lived in Strasburg, Colorado.[4] It was recognized as a method to improve water distribution to fields.[3] Overview[edit]Pivot irrigation in progress on a cotton farm.
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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Great Plains
The Great Plains
Great Plains
(sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
tallgrass prairie in the United States
United States
and east of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
in the U.S. and Canada. It embraces:the entirety of the U.S. states of Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota parts of the states of Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming the southern portions of the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, and SaskatchewanThe region is known for supporting extensive cattle ranching and dry farming. The Canadian portion of the Plains is known as the Prairies. It covers much of Alberta
Alberta
and southern Saskatchewan, and a narrow band of southern Manitoba
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Aquifer
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt). Groundwater
Groundwater
can be extracted using a water well. The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology. Related terms include aquitard, which is a bed of low permeability along an aquifer,[1] and aquiclude (or aquifuge), which is a solid, impermeable area underlying or overlying an aquifer
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U.S. State
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States. There are currently 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the United States federal government. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans
Americans
are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside.[3] State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders (e.g., paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody)
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South Dakota
South Dakota
South Dakota
(/- dəˈkoʊtə/ ( listen)) is a U.S. state
U.S. state
in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux
Sioux
Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and historically dominated the territory. South Dakota
South Dakota
is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States. As the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota
South Dakota
became a state on November 2, 1889, simultaneously with North Dakota
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Nebraska
Welcome to NEBRASKAland where the West begins[5]Soil Holdrege seriesSong "Beautiful Nebraska"Other River: Platte RiverState route markerState quarterReleased in 2006Lists of United States
United States
state symbols Nebraska
Nebraska
/nɪˈbræskə/ ( listen) is a state that lies in both the Great Plains
Great Plains
and the Midwestern United States. It is bordered by South Dakota
South Dakota
to the north, Iowa
Iowa
to the east and Missouri
Missouri
to the southeast, both across the Missouri
Missouri
River, Kansas
Kansas
to the south, Colorado
Colorado
to the southwest and Wyoming
Wyoming
to the west. It is the only triply landlocked U.S. state. Nebraska's area is just over 77,220 square miles (200,000 km2) with almost 1.9 million people
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Wyoming
Wyoming
Wyoming
/waɪˈoʊmɪŋ/ ( listen) is a state in the mountain region of the western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous and the second least densely populated state in the country. Wyoming
Wyoming
is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota
South Dakota
and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho. The state population was estimated at 586,107 in 2015, which is less than 31 of the most populous U.S. cities including neighboring Denver.[8] Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with population estimated at 63,335 in 2015.[9] The western two-thirds of the state is covered mostly by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains
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Colorado
Colorado
Colorado
(/ˌkɒləˈrædoʊ, -ˈrɑːdoʊ/ ( listen)[8][9]) is a state of the United States
United States
encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau
Plateau
and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th largest geographically and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado
Colorado
was 5,540,545 on July 1, 2016, an increase of 10.17% since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[10] The state was named for the Colorado
Colorado
River, which Spanish travelers named the Río Colorado
Colorado
for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains
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Kansas
Kansas
Kansas
/ˈkænzəs/ ( listen) is a U.S. state
U.S. state
in the Midwestern United States.[10] Its capital is Topeka
Topeka
and its largest city is Wichita. Kansas
Kansas
is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area.[11] The tribe's name (natively kką:ze) is often said to mean "people of the (south) wind" although this was probably not the term's original meaning.[12][13] For thousands of years, what is now Kansas
Kansas
was home to numerous and diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys
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Oklahoma
English ( Choctaw
Choctaw
official within Choctaw
Choctaw
Nation,
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New Mexico
New Mexico
Mexico
(Spanish: Nuevo México pronounced [ˈnweβo ˈmexiko], Navajo: Yootó Hahoodzo pronounced [jòːtxó xɑ̀xʷòːtsò]) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America. With a population of approximately two million, New Mexico
Mexico
is the 36th most populous state. With a total area of 121,590 sq mi (314,900 km2), it is the fifth largest and fifth least densely populated of the fifty states. It is one of the Mountain States
Mountain States
and shares the Four Corners
Four Corners
region with Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Its capital and cultural center is Santa Fe, while its largest city is Albuquerque
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Texas
Texas
Texas
(/ˈtɛksəs/, locally /-sɪz/; Spanish: Texas
Texas
or Tejas [ˈtexas]) is the second largest state in the United States
United States
by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas
Texas
shares borders with the U.S
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "H
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Intensive Farming
Intensive farming
Intensive farming
involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area. It is characterized by a low fallow ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital and labour, and higher crop yields per cubic unit land area.[1][2] This contrasts with traditional agriculture, in which the inputs per unit land are lower. The term "intensive" involves various meanings, some of which refer to organic farming methods (such as biointensive agriculture and French intensive gardening), and others that refer to nonorganic and industrial methods. Intensive animal farming involves either large numbers of animals raised on limited land, usually concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), often referred to as factory farms,[1][3][4] or managed intensive rotational grazing (MIRG), which has both organic and non-organic types
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Water Table
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation. The zone of saturation is where the pores and fractures of the ground are saturated with water.[1] The water table is the surface where the water pressure head is equal to the atmospheric pressure (where gauge pressure = 0). It may be visualized as the "surface" of the subsurface materials that are saturated with groundwater in a given vicinity.[2] The groundwater may be from precipitation or from groundwater flowing into the aquifer. In areas with sufficient precipitation, water infiltrates through pore spaces in the soil, passing through the unsaturated zone. At increasing depths, water fills in more of the pore spaces in the soils, until a zone of saturation is reached. Below the water table, in the phreatic zone (zone of saturation), layers of permeable rock that yield groundwater are called aquifers
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