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Celtic Nations
The Celtic nations
Celtic nations
are territories in western Europe
Europe
where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.[1] The term "nation" is used in its original sense to mean a people who share a common identity and culture and are identified with a traditional territory. The six territories widely considered Celtic nations
Celtic nations
are Brittany (Breizh), Cornwall
Cornwall
(Kernow), Wales
Wales
(Cymru), Scotland
Scotland
(Alba), Ireland (Éire) and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
(Mannin or Ellan Vannin),[1][2] commonly referred to as the "Celtic fringe"
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Celtic Nation F.C.
Celtic Nation Football Club (/ˈkɛltɪk ˈneɪʃən/) was an English association football club based in Carlisle, Cumbria
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Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
(/ˈɡeɪltəxt/; Irish pronunciation: [ˈɡeːl̪ˠt̪ˠəxt̪ˠ]; plural Gaeltachtaí) is an Irish-language
Irish-language
word used to denote any primarily Irish-speaking region
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Autosomal DNA
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).[1] The members of an autosome pair in a diploid cell have the same morphology unlike those in allosome pairs which may have different structure. The DNA in autosomes is collectively known as atDNA or auDNA.[2] For example, humans have a diploid genome that usually contains 22 pairs of autosomes and one allosome pair (46 chromosomes total). The autosome pairs are labeled with numbers (1–22 in humans) roughly in order of their sizes in base pairs, while allosomes are labelled with their letters.[3] By contrast, the allosome pair consists of two X chromosomes in females or one X and one Y chromosome in males. (Unusual combinations of XYY, XXY, XXX, XXXX, XXXXX or XXYY, among other allosome combinations, are known to occur and usually cause developmental abnormalities.) Autosomes still contain sexual determination genes even though they are not sex chromosomes
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Y-DNA
The Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals. The other is the X chromosome. Y is the sex-determining chromosome in many species, since it is the presence or absence of Y that determines the male or female sex of offspring produced in sexual reproduction. In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development. The DNA
DNA
in the human Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is composed of about 59 million base pairs.[5] The Y chromosome
Y chromosome
is passed only from father to son
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Autosomal
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).[1] The members of an autosome pair in a diploid cell have the same morphology unlike those in allosome pairs which may have different structure. The DNA
DNA
in autosomes is collectively known as at DNA
DNA
or auDNA.[2] For example, humans have a diploid genome that usually contains 22 pairs of autosomes and one allosome pair (46 chromosomes total)
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Mesolithic
In Old World archaeology, the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
(Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Neolithic, the three periods together forming the Stone Age. The term "Epipaleolithic" is often used for areas outside northern Europe, but was also the preferred synonym used by French archaeologists until the 1960s. The type of culture associated with the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
varies between areas, but it is associated with a decline in the group hunting of large animals in favour of a broader hunter-gatherer way of life, and the development of more sophisticated and typically smaller lithic tools and weapons than the heavy chipped equivalents typical of the Paleolithic
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Welsh Language
All UK speakers: 700,000+ (2012)[1]Wales: 562,016 speakers (19.0% of the population of Wales),[2] (data from 2011 Census); All skills (speaking, reading, or writing): 630,062 language users[3] England: 110,000–150,000 (estimated) Argentina: 1,500-5,000[4][5](data not from 2011 census) Canada: L1,<3,885,[6] United States: ~2,235 (2009-2013) (2017)Language familyIndo-EuropeanCelticInsular CelticBrittonicWesternWelshEarly formsCommon BrittonicOld WelshMiddle WelshWriting systemLatin (Welsh alphabet) Welsh BrailleOfficial statusOfficial language inWalesRecognised minority language in United Kingdom
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Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig [ˈkaːlikʲ] ( listen)) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels
Gaels
of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language placenames.[3] In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people (1.1% of the Scottish population aged over three years old) reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001
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Language Revitalization
Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.[1] Those involved can include parties such as linguists, cultural or community groups, or governments. Some argue for a distinction between language revival (the resurrection of a dead language with no existing native speakers) and language revitalization (the rescue of a "dying" language). It has been pointed out that there has only been one successful instance of a complete language revival, that of the Hebrew
Hebrew
language, creating a new generation of native speakers without any pre-existing native speakers as a model.[2][unreliable source?] Languages targeted for language revitalization include those whose use and prominence is severely limited. Sometimes various tactics of language revitalization can even be used to try to revive extinct languages
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Y Fro Gymraeg
All UK speakers: 700,000+ (2012)[1]Wales: 562,016 speakers (19.0% of the population of Wales),[2] (data from 2011 Census); All skills (speaking, reading, or writing): 630,062 language users[3] England: 110,000–150,000 (estimated) Argentina: 1,500-5,000[4][5](data not from 2011 census) Canada: L1,<3,885,[6] United States: ~2,235 (2009-2013) (2017)Language familyIndo-EuropeanCelticInsular CelticBrittonicWesternWelshEarly formsCommon BrittonicOld WelshMiddle WelshWriting systemLatin (Welsh alphabet) Welsh BrailleOfficial statusOfficial language inWalesRecognised minority language in United Kingdom
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Bronze Age
The Bronze
Bronze
Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze
Bronze
Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze- Iron
Iron
system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze
Bronze
Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere
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Lower Brittany
Lower Brittany
Brittany
(Breton: Breizh-Izel; French: Basse-Bretagne) denotes the parts of Brittany
Brittany
west of Ploërmel, where the Breton language
Breton language
has been traditionally spoken, and where the culture associated with this language is most prolific. The name is in contra-distinction to Upper Brittany, the eastern part of Brittany, which is of a predominantly Romance culture.In colours, Lower Brittany, where the Breton language
Breton language
is spoken; in grey Upper Brittany, associated with the Gallo language.Contents1 History1.1 Naming 1.2 Line between Upper and Lower Brittany2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] Naming[edit] The words "upper" and "lower" in the names of Upper and Lower Brittany refer to the relative positions of the capital
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Gàidhealtachd
The Gàidhealtachd ([kɛːəl̪ˠt̪əxk]  listen (help·info), English: Gaeldom), sometimes known as A' Ghàidhealtachd (English: The Gaeldom), usually refers to the Highlands and Islands of Scotland and especially the Scottish Gaelic-speaking culture of the area
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Scottish Highlands
The Highlands (Scots: the Hielands; Scottish Gaelic: A’ Ghàidhealtachd pronounced [ə ɣɛːəl̪ˠt̪ʰəxk], "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.[1] Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands. The term is also used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, although the exact boundaries are not clearly defined, particularly to the east. The Great Glen divides the Grampian Mountains
Grampian Mountains
to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands
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