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Cell (biology)
The cell (from Latin
Latin
cella, meaning "small room"[1]) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life"
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50s
50S
50S
is the larger subunit of the 70S ribosome of prokaryotes. It is the site of inhibition for antibiotics such as macrolides, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and the pleuromutilins. It includes the 5S ribosomal RNA
5S ribosomal RNA
and 23S ribosomal RNA.Contents1 Structure1.1 Ribosomal RNA2 Function2.1 Promotes the peptidyl transfer reaction and prevents peptidyl hydrolysis 2.2 Helps protein formation3 See also 4 References 5 External linksStructure[edit] 50S, roughly equivalent to the 60S
60S
ribosomal subunit in eukaryotic cells, is the larger subunit of the 70S ribosome of prokaryotes. The 50S
50S
subunit is primarily composed of proteins but also contains single-stranded RNA
RNA
known as ribosomal RNA
RNA
(rRNA)
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Fungus
Dikarya
Dikarya
(inc. Deuteromycota)AscomycotaPezizomycotina Saccharomycotina TaphrinomycotinaBasidiomycotaAgaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina UstilaginomycotinaSubphyla incertae sedisEntomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina ZoopagomycotinaA fungus (plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Monastery
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits). A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, and may also serve as an oratory. Monasteries vary greatly in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, dormitory, cloister, refectory, library, balneary and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may also include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community
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Matthias Jakob Schleiden
Matthias Jakob Schleiden
Matthias Jakob Schleiden
(5 April 1804 – 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow. Born in Hamburg, Schleiden was educated at the University of Jena, then practiced law in Heidelberg, but soon developed his love for botany into a full-time pursuit. Schleiden preferred to study plant structure under the microscope. While a professor of botany at the University of Jena, he wrote Contributions to our Knowledge of Phytogenesis (1838), in which he stated that all parts of the plant organism are composed of cells. Thus, Schleiden and Schwann became the first to formulate what was then an informal belief as a principle of biology equal in importance to the atomic theory of chemistry
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Nucleic Acid
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life. They are composed of nucleotides, which are monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA
RNA
(ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA
DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid). Nucleic acids are the most important of all biomolecules. They are found in abundance in all living things, where they function to create and encode and then store information in the nucleus of every living cell of every life-form organism on Earth. In turn, they function to transmit and express that information inside and outside the cell nucleus—to the interior operations of the cell and ultimately to the next generation of each living organism
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Prokaryote
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.[1] The word prokaryote comes from the Greek πρό (pro) "before" and κάρυον (karyon) "nut or kernel".[2][3] Prokaryotes are divided into two domains, Archaea
Archaea
and Bacteria. In contrast, species with nuclei and organelles are placed in the third domain, Eukaryota.[4] Prokaryotes reproduce without fusion of gametes. The first living organisms are thought to have been prokaryotes. In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components (proteins, DNA
DNA
and metabolites) are located together in the cytoplasm enclosed by the cell membrane, rather than in separate cellular compartments
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Eukaryote
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia
Animalia
or Fungi
Fungi
are sometimes grouped in the kingdom Protista.A eukaryote (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/) is any organism whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes ( Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea).[3][4][5] Eukaryotes belong to the domain Eukaryota
Eukaryota
or Eukarya. Their name comes from the Greek εὖ (eu, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (karyon, "nut" or "kernel").[6] Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus, and in addition, some cells of plants and algae contain chloroplasts
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Protist
A protist (/ˈproʊtɪst/) is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus. The protists do not form a natural group, or clade, since they have no common characteristic origin, but, like algae or invertebrates, they are often grouped together for convenience
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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Anatomical Terminology
Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
uses many unique terms, suffixes, and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Latin. These terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise reducing ambiguity and errors. Also, since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less likely to change, and less likely to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand; and could be on the palm-side or back-side of the arm
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Foundational Model Of Anatomy
The Foundational Model of Anatomy
Anatomy
Ontology (FMA) is a reference ontology for the domain of anatomy
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RNA
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. RNA
RNA
and DNA
DNA
are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA
RNA
is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA
DNA
it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins
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Medical Subject Headings
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/ PubMed
PubMed
article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov
registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only.[2] It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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