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Cekeen Tumulus
The TUMULI OF CEKEEN are located in the Diourbel Department of the Diourbel Region . The Diourbel Region and the city of Diourbel were part of the precolonial Kingdom of Baol , now part of present-day Senegal
Senegal
. CONTENTS * 1 Purpose * 2 World Heritage
World Heritage
Status * 3 See also * 4 References PURPOSEIn this area, a tumulus was used as a burial mound for chiefs. A deceased chief would be joined by other members of his court along with important objects such as furniture and other implements. In this case, he and his escort would be situated in the chief's hut, whereupon the hut was buried with soil and rocks. Thousands of such tumuli exist in Senegal, but it is in Cekeen that the biggest and most densely scattered occur. WORLD HERITAGE STATUSThis site was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage
World Heritage
Tentative List on November 18, 2005 in the Cultural category
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Tumulus
A TUMULUS (plural TUMULI) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as BARROWS, BURIAL MOUNDS or KURGANS , and may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn , which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several burials , such as passage graves . A round barrow is a round tumulus, also commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen , a cist , a mortuary enclosure , a mortuary house , or a chamber tomb . Examples of barrows include Duggleby Howe and Maeshowe
Maeshowe
. The word tumulus is Latin
Latin
for 'mound' or 'small hill', which is derived from the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
root *teuh2- with extended zero grade *tum-, 'to bulge, swell' also found in tumor, thumb, thigh, and thousand
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Diourbel Department
DIOURBEL DEPARTMENT is one of the 45 departments of Senegal , one of the three constituting the Diourbel Region . There is one commune in the department, which is Diourbel
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Diourbel Region
The DIOURBEL REGION (Serer and Cangin : Jurbel) is a region of Senegal . The regional capital is the city of Diourbel . The region corresponds roughly to the precolonial Kingdom of Bawol and is still called by that name. Bawol (or Baol) is an ancient kingdom formerly ruled by the Joof family , one of the members of the Serer ethnic group found in Senegambia . Inhabitants of the area are called Bawol-Bawol which takes its name from the Serer mode of pluralisation , other examples being : Sine-Sine or Siin-Siin (inhabitants of Sine ), Saloum-Saloum (inhabitants of Saloum ), etc. The population is overrun by the Serer people especially those from the Cangin group , the Safene in particular. The Serers are believed to be the original inhabitants of this area. The Wolof and other ethnic groups are also present. The Diourbel Region is rich in history and it is where the Cekeen Tumulus are located. Some scholars such as Charles Becker, Henry Gravrand , Victor Martin among others , suggests that, these monuments were built by the Serer people and form part of the Serer tumulus of Baol (see also Senegambian stone circles ). They are some of the most sacred sites in Serer religion . The Department of Mbacke also includes Murid Islamic Sufi order's holy city of Touba . The installation of this order in Serer country is a controversial one, especially among those Serers who adhere to the tenets of Serer religion (see Serer history (medieval era to present)
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Diourbel
DIOURBEL (Serer : Jurbel, Wolof : Njaaréem) is a town in Senegal lying east of Thiès . It is known for its mosque and local groundnut industry and is the capital of the Diourbel Region . The population in 2013 was 133,705. CONTENTS * 1 Transport * 2 International relations * 2.1 Twin towns — Sister cities * 3 See also * 4 References TRANSPORTDiourbel lies on the N3 road linking it to Dakar and is also served by a junction station on the Dakar-Niger Railway . Both the railway and the N3 cross the River Sine in the town. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Senegal TWIN TOWNS — SISTER CITIESDiourbel is twinned with: * Avignon , France SEE ALSO * Railway stations in Senegal REFERENCES * ^ "Senegal: administrative units, extended". Geohive. Retrieved 25 November 2016. * ^ "Jumelages et Relations Internationales - Avignon". Avignon.fr (in French). Retrieved 2013-07-13. * ^ "Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Ministère des affaires étrangères (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-02-26. Retrieved 2013-07-13. This Senegal location article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diourbel additional terms may apply
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Kingdom Of Baol
KINGDOM commonly refers to: * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by a king or queen regnant * Kingdom (biology) , a category in biological taxonomy * Kingdom of God , a foundational concept in the three Abrahamic religionsKINGDOM may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Popular culture * 2.1 Music * 3 Other * 4 See also PEOPLE * Kingdom (director) (born 1975), Japanese adult video director * Park Yong-Wook , also known as "Kingdom", a professional Korean StarCraft player * Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806–1859), English engineerPOPULAR CULTURE * _Kingdoms_ (board game) , a board game by Reiner Knizia * _Kingdom_ (comics) , a comic series by Dan Abnett and Richard Elson published in the weekly _2000 AD_ * _Kingdom_ (manga) , a 2006 Japanese manga * _Kingdom_ (UK TV series) , a 2007 British television drama starring Stephen Fry * _Kingdom_ (U.S
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Senegal
Coordinates : 14°N 14°W / 14°N 14°W / 14; -14 Republic of Senegal _République du Sénégal_ (French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi" (French ) "One People, One Goal, One Faith" ANTHEM: _ Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons _ _Everyone strum your koras , strike the balafons _ Location of Senegal (dark blue) in the African Union (light blue) Capital and largest city Dakar 14°40′N 17°25′W / 14.667°N 17.417°W / 14.667; -17.417 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES French NATIONAL LANGUAGES * Balanta-Ganja * Hassaniya Arabic * Jola-Fonyi * Mandinka * Mandjak * Mankanya * Noon *
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UNESCO
United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture (in French) ABBREVIATION UNESCO FORMATION 16 November 1945 TYPE Specialized agency LEGAL STATUS Active HEADQUARTERS Place de Fontenoy , Paris, France MEMBERSHIP 195 member states HEAD Irina Bokova Director-General of UNESCO
UNESCO
WEBSITE www.unesco.orgThe UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO) (French : _Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture_) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
Paris
. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law , and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter . It is the successor of the League of Nations ' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation . UNESCO
UNESCO
has 195 member states and ten associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist
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World Heritage
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity. More specifically, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is an already classified landmark, which by way of being unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable piece is of special cultural or physical significance (such as either due to hosting an ancient ruins or some historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) and symbolizes a remarkable footprint of extreme human endeavour often coupled with some act of indisputable accomplishment of humanity which then serves as a surviving evidence of its intellectual existence on the planet
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Senegambian Stone Circles
The SENEGAMBIAN STONE CIRCLES lie in The Gambia
Gambia
north of Janjanbureh and in central Senegal
Senegal
. Approximate area: 30,000 km². They are sometimes divided into the Wassu (Gambian) and Sine-Saloum (Senegalese) circles, but this is purely a national division. CONTENTS* 1 Location * 1.1 Wassu * 1.2 Kerbatch * 1.3 Wanar * 2 Sine Ngayene * 3 Locations * 4 Additional stone circles in Senegambia * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links * 8 References LOCATIONThe stone circles and other megaliths found in Senegal
Senegal
and Gambia
Gambia
are sometimes divided into four large sites: Sine Ngayene and Wanar in Senegal, and Wassu and Kerbatch in the Central River Region in Gambia. Researchers are not certain when these monuments were built, but the generally accepted range is between the third century B.C. and the sixteenth century AD. Archaeologists have also found pottery sherds, human burials, and some grave goods and metals around the megalithic circles. A small collection of these can be found in the British Museum 's study collection that was donated by the colonial administrator Sir Richmond Palmer . They include an iron bracelet and two spears. Among these four main areas, there are approximately 29,000 stones, 17,000 monuments, and 2,000 individual sites
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History Of Senegal
The HISTORY OF SENEGAL is commonly divided into a number of periods, encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period, colonialism, and the contemporary era. CONTENTS * 1 Paleolithic * 2 Neolithic * 3 Prehistory * 4 Kingdoms and Empires * 5 The era of trading posts and trafficking * 5.1 The Portuguese navigators * 5.2 The Dutch West India Company * 5.3 Against the backdrop of Anglo-French rivalry * 5.4 A trading economy * 5.5 The progressive weakening of the colony * 6 Modern colonialism * 6.1 List of deputies elected to the French Parliament * 7 Independence * 8 1980–2006 * 9 2007-The present * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 12.1 English Language * 12.2 French language * 12.2.1 Primary sources * 12.2.2 Secondary sources * 13 External links PALEOLITHICThe earliest evidence of human life is found in the valley of the Falémé in the south-east. The presence of man in the Lower Paleolithic is attested by the discovery of stone tools characteristic of Acheulean such as hand axes reported by Théodore Monod at the tip of Fann in the peninsula of Cap-Vert in 1938, or cleavers found in the south-east. There were also found stones shaped by the Levallois technique , characteristic of the Middle Paleolithic
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History Of The Gambia
The first written records of the region come from Arab
Arab
traders in the 9th and 10th centuries. In medieval times, the region was dominated by the Trans-Saharan trade and was ruled by the Mali Empire . In the 16th century, the region came to be ruled by the Songhai Empire
Songhai Empire
. The first Europeans to visit the Gambia River were the Portuguese in the 15th century, who attempted to settle on the river banks, but no settlement of significant size was established. Descendants of the Portuguese settlers remained until the 18th century. In the late 16th century, English merchants attempted to begin a trade with the Gambia, reporting that it was "a river of secret trade and riches concealed by the Portuguese." In the early 17th century, the French attempted to settle the Gambia but failed. Further English expeditions from 1618 to 1621, including under Richard Jobson , were attempted but resulted in huge losses. Merchants of the Commonwealth of England sent expeditions to the Gambia in 1651, but their ships were captured by Prince Rupert the following year. In 1651, the Couronian colonisation of the Gambia had also begun, with forts and outposts being erected on several islands. The Courlanders remained dominant until 1659 when their possessions were handed over to the Dutch West India Company
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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction , magical or technological doorways that connect two locations, dimensions, or points in time * _ Portal _, a video game series developed by Valve Corporation CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Gateways to information * 1.2 Other computing * 2 Art, entertainment, and media * 2.1 Games * 2.2 Music * 2.2.1 Groups * 2.2.2 Albums * 2.3 Other art, entertainment, and media * 3 Places * 4 Other uses * 5 People with the surname * 6 Construction methods and structures * 7 Drainage systems * 8 See also COMPUTINGGATEWAYS TO INFORMATION * Captive portal , controlling conne
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World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity. More specifically, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is an already classified landmark, which by way of being unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable piece is of special cultural or physical significance (such as either due to hosting an ancient ruins or some historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) and symbolizes a remarkable footprint of extreme human endeavour often coupled with some act of indisputable accomplishment of humanity which then serves as a surviving evidence of its intellectual existence on the planet
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Bassari Country
The BASSARI COUNTRY and its BASSARI, FULA AND BEDIK CULTURAL LANDSCAPES, located in the southeast of Senegal , is a well-preserved multicultural landscape which emerged from the interaction of human activities and the natural environment. It aggregates three geographical areas: the Bassari–Salémata area, the Bedik–Bandafassi area and the Fula–Dindéfello area, each one with its specifics morphological characteristics. In 2012, the Bassari Country with its Bassari, Fula and Bedik Cultural Landscapes was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites . SEE ALSO * Bassari people * Fula people * Bedick people REFERENCES * ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1407. * ^ "Bassari Country: Bassari, Fula and Bedik Cultural Landscapes". UNESCO. Retrieved 16 May 2015. * ^ "Twenty-six new sites inscribed on UNESCO World Heritage List this year". UNESCO. Retrieved 16 May 2015. * v * t * e World Heritage Sites in Senegal * Bassari Country: Bassari, Fula and Bedik Cultural Landscapes * Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary * Island of Gorée * Island of Saint-Louis * Niokolo-Koba National Park * Saloum Delta * Stone Circles of Senegambia (with Gambia ) This Senegal location article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bassari_Country additional terms may apply
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Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary
The DJOUDJ NATIONAL BIRD SANCTUARY (French : Parc national des oiseaux du Djoudj) lies on the southeast bank of the Senegal
Senegal
River in Senegal
Senegal
, in northern Biffeche , north east of St-Louis . It provides a range of wetland habitats which prove very popular with migrating birds , many of which have just crossed the Sahara
Sahara
. Of almost 400 species of birds, the most visible are pelicans and flamingos . Less conspicuous are the aquatic warblers migrating here from Europe
Europe
; for these, the park is the single most important wintering site yet discovered . A wide range of wildlife also inhabits the park, which is designated a World Heritage Site . The site was added to the list of World Heritage in Danger in 2000 due to the introduction of the invasive giant salvinia plant, which threatens to choke out the park's native vegetation. However it was removed from the list in 2006. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES At left, the drought of September 1979; at right, the floods of November 1999 Since operation of the Diama Dam on the Senegal
Senegal
River began in 1988, experts have observed a lowering of the water level, desalinization , and silting . The changes pose a threat to the fauna and flora. There has been in particular a proliferation of typhas and phragmites
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