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Cedar Paul
Cedar Paul, née Gertrude Mary Davenport (1880 – 18 March 1972) was a singer, author, translator and journalist.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Works2.1 Translations undertaken with Eden Paul 2.2 Other works3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Gertrude Davenport came from a musical family: she was the granddaughter of the composer George Alexander Macfarren
George Alexander Macfarren
and the daughter of the composer Francis William Davenport (1847–1925).[1] She was educated at convent schools in Belgium, France
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George Alexander Macfarren
Sir George Alexander Macfarren
George Alexander Macfarren
(2 March 1813 – 31 October 1887) was an English composer and musicologist.Contents1 Life1.1 Musical career2 Compositions (selective list)2.1 Orchestral 2.2 Choral and vocal 2.3 Operatic 2.4 Incidental music3 Reputation 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit]Walter Macfarren, his brother George Alexander Macfarren
George Alexander Macfarren
was born in London on 2 March 1813 to George Macfarren, a dancing-master, dramatic author and journalist,[1] who later became the editor of the Musical World,[2] and Elizabeth Macfarren, née Jackson.[3] At the age of seven, Macfarren was sent to Dr
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Romain Rolland
Romain Rolland
Romain Rolland
(French: [ʁɔlɑ̃]; 29 January 1866 – 30 December 1944) was a French dramatist, novelist, essayist, art historian and mystic who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature
Nobel Prize for Literature
in 1915 "as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings".[1]Contents1 Biography 2 People's theatre 3 Novels 4 Academic career 5 Correspondence with Freud 6 Quotations 7 Bibliography 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksBiography[edit] Rolland was born in Clamecy, Nièvre
Clamecy, Nièvre
into a family that had both wealthy townspeople and farmers in its lineage. Writing introspectively in his Voyage intérieur (1942), he sees himself as a representative of an "antique species"
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Georgi Plekhanov
Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (Russian: Гео́ргий Валенти́нович Плеха́нов, IPA: [ɡʲɪˈorɡʲɪj vəlʲɪnˈtʲinəvʲɪtɕ plʲɪˈxanəf] ( listen); 29 November 1856 – 30 May 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist
Marxist
theoretician. He was a founder of the social-democratic movement in Russia and was one of the first Russians to identify himself as "Marxist." Facing political persecution, Plekhanov emigrated to Switzerland in 1880, where he continued in his political activity attempting to overthrow the Tsarist regime in Russia. Although he supported the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
faction at the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1903, Plekhanov soon rejected the idea of democratic centralism, and became one of Lenin and Trotsky's principal antagonists in the 1905 St
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Mikhail Lermontov
Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (/ˈlɛərmənˌtɔːf, -ˌtɒf/;[1] Russian: Михаи́л Ю́рьевич Ле́рмонтов, IPA: [mʲɪxɐˈil ˈjurʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ˈlʲɛrməntəf]; October 15 [O.S. October 3] 1814 – July 27 [O.S. July 15] 1841) was a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism
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A. J. P. Taylor
Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy. Both a journalist and a broadcaster, he became well known to millions through his television lectures
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Augustin Frédéric Hamon
Augustin Frédéric Hamon (1862–1945) was a French socialist-anarchist writer and editor. Hamon founded the anarchist magazine L'Humanité nouvelle in 1897, and edited it until 1903.[1] Hamon met George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw
for the first time at a Fabian Congress in London
London
in 1894.[2] From 1904 onwards he and his wife Henriette (née Rynenbroeck) translated Shaw's work into French.[3] Hamon was a proponent of using antisemitism to appeal to a mass audience, arguing in an 1898 interview that “With the petty bourgeois especially, anti-Judaism is the road to Socialism.
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Hugo Ribbert
(Moritz Wilhelm) Hugo Ribbert (1 March 1855 in Hohenlimburg – 6 November 1920 in Bonn) was a German professor of pathology. Ribbert studied at Bonn, Berlin and Strassburg. In 1883 he was appointed Professor extraordinarius at Bonn. In 1892 he became Professor at Zurich
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Eugen Boehm-Bawerk
Eugen Böhm Ritter
Ritter
von Bawerk[1] (German: [bøːm ˈbaːvɛʁk]; born Eugen Böhm, 12 February 1851 – 27 August 1914) was an Austrian economist who made important contributions to the development of the Austrian School
Austrian School
of economics. He was the Austrian Minister of Finance intermittently from 1895 to 1904, and also wrote a series of extensive critiques of Marxism.Contents1 Biography 2 Published work 3 See also 4 Notes 5 External linksBiography[edit]Frontispiece of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the close of his systemWhile studying to be a lawyer at the University of Vienna, he read Carl Menger's Principles of Economics. Though he never studied under Menger, he became an adherent of his theories
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Adolphe Ferrière
Adolphe Ferrière (Geneva, 1879 - Geneva, 1960) was one of the founders of the movement of the progressive education. He shortly worked in a school in Glarisegg (TG,CH) and later founded an experimental school ('La Forge') in Lausanne, Switzerland, but Adolphe Ferrière had to quickly abandon teaching due to his deafness. In 1921, he founded the New Education Fellowship, in which he wrote the charter. The congress of this league until the Second World War included a number of other teachers: Maria Montessori, Célestin Freinet, Gisèle de Failly and Roger Cousinet. He worked as a humanist and an editor from 1919 to 1922 on the pacifist journal 'l'Essor' (The Rise)
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Achille Loria
Achille Loria
Achille Loria
(March 2, 1857 in Mantua
Mantua
– November 6, 1943) was an Italian political economist. He was educated at the lyceum of his native city and the universities of Bologna, Pavia, Rome, Berlin, and London
London
and graduated at the University of Bologna
Bologna
(1877). He became professor of political economy in the University of Siena
University of Siena
in 1881; and he held a similar appointment in the University of Padua
University of Padua
(1891–1903), and University of Torino (1903–1932). He was elected to the Accademia dei Licei (1901) and appointed to the Italian Senate in 1919. His work draws on a wide range of predecessors: Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Charles Darwin, Adolf Wagner
Adolf Wagner
and Luigi Cossa, who was his teacher
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Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
Freud
(/frɔɪd/ FROYD;[3] German: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.[4] Freud
Freud
was born to Galician Jewish
Jewish
parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna.[5][6] Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902.[7] Freud
Freud
lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud
Freud
left Austria to escape the Nazis
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Aurel Kolnai
Aurel Thomas Kolnai (December 5, 1900 – June 28, 1973[1]) was a 20th-century philosopher and political theorist.Contents1 Life 2 Philosophical writings and major themes 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] Kolnai was born in Budapest, Hungary
Budapest, Hungary
to Jewish parents, but moved to Vienna
Vienna
before his twentieth birthday to enter Vienna
Vienna
University, studying under Heinrich Gomperz, Moritz Schlick, Felix Kaufmann, Karl Bühler, and Ludwig von Mises. It was also at this time that he became attracted to the thinking of Franz Brentano
Franz Brentano
and the phenomenological thought of Brentano’s student Edmund Husserl. Kolnai studied under Husserl briefly in 1928 in Freiburg.[2] During the early 1920s, Kolnai wrote as an independent scholar with little success
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Rosa Luxemburg
 Rosa Luxemburg (help·info) (also Rozalia Luxenburg; Polish: Róża Luksemburg; 5 March 1871[1] – 15 January 1919) was a Polish Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist who became a naturalized German citizen at the age of 28. She was, successively, a member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania (SDKPiL), the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(SPD), the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), and the Communist Party of Germany
Communist Party of Germany
(KPD). In 1915, after the SPD supported German involvement in World War I, she and Karl Liebknecht
Karl Liebknecht
co-founded the anti-war Spartacus
Spartacus
League (Spartakusbund), which eventually became the KPD
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Walther Rathenau
Walther Rathenau
Walther Rathenau
(29 September 1867 – 24 June 1922) was a German statesman who served as Foreign Minister during the Weimar Republic. Rathenau initiated the Treaty of Rapallo, which removed major obstacles to trading with Soviet Russia. Although Russia was already aiding Germany’s secret rearmament programme, right-wing nationalist groups branded Rathenau a revolutionary, when he was in fact a moderate liberal who openly condemned Soviet methods. They also resented his background as a successful Jewish businessman.[citation needed] Two months after signing the treaty, he was assassinated in Berlin
Berlin
by the right-wing terrorist group Organisation Consul
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