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Cattail
Typha
Typha
/ˈtaɪfə/ is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae. These plants have many common names, in British English
British English
as bulrush, or reedmace,[2] in American English
American English
as cattail,[3] punks, or corn dog grass, in Australia as cumbungi or bulrush, in Canada
Canada
as bulrush or cattail, and in New Zealand as raupō. Other taxa of plants may be known as bulrush, including some sedges in Scirpus
Scirpus
and related genera. The genus is largely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, where it is found in a variety of wetland habitats. The rhizomes are edible
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates: 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
shaded blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North
North
PoleThe Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the Equator
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Dietary Reference Intake
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine
Institute of Medicine
(IOM) of the National Academies (United States).[1] It was introduced in 1997 in order to broaden the existing guidelines known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs, see below)
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Mineral (nutrient)
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.[1][2] Minerals
Minerals
originate in the earth and cannot be made by living organisms.[3] Plants get minerals from soil.[3] Most of the minerals in a human diet come from eating plants and animals or from drinking water.[3] As a group, minerals are one of the four groups of essential nutrients, the others of which are vitamins, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[4] The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium.[1] All of the remaining elements in a human body are called "trace elements". The trace elements that have a specific biochemical function in the human body are sulfur, iron, chlorine, cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, molybdenum, iodine and selenium.[5] Most chemical elements that are ingested by organisms are in the form of simple compounds
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Copper In Health
Copper
Copper
is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things (humans, plants, animals, and microorganisms). In humans, copper is essential to the proper functioning of organs and metabolic processes. The human body has complex homeostatic mechanisms which attempt to ensure a constant supply of available copper, while eliminating excess copper whenever this occurs. However, like all essential elements and nutrients, too much or too little nutritional ingestion of copper can result in a corresponding condition of copper excess or deficiency in the body, each of which has its own unique set of adverse health effects. Daily dietary standards for copper have been set by various health agencies around the world
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Human Iron Metabolism
Human iron metabolism
Human iron metabolism
is the set of chemical reactions that maintain human homeostasis of iron at both the systemic and cellular level. The control of this necessary but potentially toxic metal is an important part of many aspects of human health and disease. Hematologists have been especially interested in systemic iron metabolism because iron is essential for red blood cells, where most of the human body's iron is contained
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Magnesium In Biology
Magnesium
Magnesium
is an essential element in biological systems. Magnesium occurs typically as the Mg2+ ion. It is an essential mineral nutrient (i.e., element) for life[1][2][3][4] and is present in every cell type in every organism. For example, ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main source of energy in cells, must bind to a magnesium ion in order to be biologically active
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Potassium In Biology
Potassium
Potassium
is an essential mineral micronutrient and is the main intracellular ion for all types of cells. It is important in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the bodies of humans and animals.[1][2] Potassium
Potassium
is necessary for the function of all living cells, and is thus present in all plant and animal tissues. It is found in especially high concentrations within plant cells, and in a mixed diet, it is most highly concentrated in fruits. The high concentration of potassium in plants, associated with comparatively very low amounts of sodium there, historically resulted in potassium first being isolated from the ashes of plants (potash), which in turn gave the element its modern name
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Selenium In Biology
Selenium
Selenium
is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table, sulfur and tellurium, and also has similarities to arsenic. It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth's crust. Selenium
Selenium
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σελήνη (selḗnē) "Moon") was discovered in 1817 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who noted the similarity of the new element to the previously discovered tellurium (named for the Earth). Selenium
Selenium
is found in metal sulfide ores, where it partially replaces the sulfur. Commercially, selenium is produced as a byproduct in the refining of these ores, most often during production. Minerals that are pure selenide or selenate compounds are known but rare
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Sodium In Biology
Sodium
Sodium
ions are necessary in small amounts for some types of plants, but sodium as a nutrient is more generally needed in larger amounts by animals, due to their use of it for generation of nerve impulses and for maintenance of electrolyte balance and fluid balance. In animals, sodium ions are necessary for the aforementioned functions and for heart activity and certain metabolic functions.[1] The health effects of salt reflect what happens when the body has too much or too little sodium. Characteristic concentrations of sodium in model organisms are: 10mM in E
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Microgram
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one billionth (6991100000000000000♠1×10−9) of a kilogram, one millionth (6994100000000000000♠1×10−6) of a gram, or one thousandth (6997100000000000000♠1×10−3) of a milligram. The unit symbol is μg according to the International System of Units. In μg the prefix symbol for micro- is the Greek letter μ (Mu). Abbreviation and symbol confusion[edit] When the Greek lowercase “μ” (Mu) in the symbol μg is typographically unavailable, it is occasionally—although not properly—replaced by the Latin lowercase “u”. The United States-based Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) and the U.S
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Milligram
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram
Kilogram
(IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"),[2] a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
International Bureau of Weights and Measures
at Saint-Cloud, France. The kilogram was originally defined as the mass of a litre (cubic decimetre) of water at its freezing point. That was an inconvenient quantity to precisely replicate, so in the late 18th century a platinum artefact was fashioned as a standard for the kilogram
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International Unit
In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances. International units are used to quantify vitamins, hormones, some medications, vaccines, blood products, and similar biologically active substances. The name international unit has often been capitalized (in English and other languages), although major English-language dictionaries treat it as a common noun and thus use lower case. The name has several accepted abbreviations
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Vitamin C
Vitamin
Vitamin
C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[1] The disease scurvy is prevented and treated with vitamin C-containing foods or dietary supplements.[1] Evidence does not support use in the general population for the prevention of the common cold.[2][3] There is, however, some evidence that regular use may shorten the length of colds.[4] It is unclear if supplementation affects the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or dementia.[5][6] It may be taken by mouth or by injection.[1]
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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