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Cattail
TYPHA /ˈtaɪfə/ is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae . These plants have many common names, in British English
British English
as BULRUSH, or REEDMACE, in American English as CATTAIL, PUNKS, or CORN DOG GRASS, in Australia
Australia
as CUMBUNGI or BULRUSH, in Canada
Canada
as BULRUSH or CATTAIL, and in New Zealand as RAUPō. Other taxa of plants may be known as bulrush , including some sedges in Scirpus and related genera. The genus is largely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
, where it is found in a variety of wetland habitats. The rhizomes are edible. Evidence of preserved starch grains on grinding stones suggests they were already eaten in Europe
Europe
30,000 years ago
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Typha Latifolia
TYPHA LATIFOLIA (BROADLEAF CATTAIL, BULRUSH, COMMON BULRUSH, COMMON CATTAIL, CAT-O\'-NINE-TAILS, GREAT REEDMACE, COOPER\'S REED, CUMBUNGI) is a perennial herbaceous plant in the genus Typha . It is found as a native plant species in North and South America, Europe, Eurasia
Eurasia
, and Africa. In Canada, broadleaf cattail occurs in all provinces and also in the Yukon
Yukon
and Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
, and in the United States, it is native to all states except Hawaii. It is an introduced and invasive species , and considered a noxious weed , in Australia
Australia
and Hawaii
Hawaii
. It is not native but has been reported in Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales * Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant
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Monocotyledon
An economically important monocot SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION _ Kingdom: Plantae Clade_: Angiosperms
Angiosperms
_Clade_: MONOCOTS TYPE GENUS _ Lilium
Lilium
_ L
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Commelinids
In plant taxonomy, COMMELINIDS (originally COMMELINOIDS ) (plural, not capitalised) is a name used by the APG IV system for a clade within the monocots , which in its turn is a clade within the angiosperms . The commelinids are the only clade that the APG has informally named within the monocots. The remaining monocots are a paraphyletic unit. Also known as the COMMELINID MONOCOTS it forms one of three groupings within the monocots, and the final branch, the other two groups being the alismatid monocots and the lilioid monocots . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Subdivision * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONMembers of the commelinid clade have cell walls containing UV -fluorescent ferulic acid . TAXONOMYThe commelinids were first recognized as a formal group in 1967 by Armen Takhtajan , who named them the Commelinidae and assigned them to a subclass of the monocots
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Poales
See text The POALES are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons , and includes families of plants such as the grasses , bromeliads , and sedges . Sixteen plant families are currently recognized by botanists to be part of Poales. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Evolution and phylogeny * 2.2 Diversity * 3 Uses * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION _ Billbergia pyramidalis _ of family Bromeliaceae The flowers are typically small, enclosed by bracts, and arranged in inflorescences (except in the genus _ Mayaca _, with solitary terminal flowers). The flowers of many species are wind pollinated; the seeds usually contain starch
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Typhaceae
Sparganium Typha
Typha
The TYPHACEAE /taɪˈfeɪsiː/ are a family of flowering plants . The botanical name for the family has been recognized by most taxonomists. The APG II system , of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system , 1998), also recognizes this family, and assigns it to the order Poales
Poales
in the clade commelinids , in the monocots . The family then consisted of one genus ( Typha
Typha
), totalling a dozen species of perennial plants of wet habitats. More recently, the APG III system of 2009 included a second genus, Sparganium , in this family. The two genera together have a total of 51 known species
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Food Energy
FOOD ENERGY is chemical energy that animals (including humans ) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration . Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
may either involve the chemical reaction of food molecules with molecular oxygen (aerobic respiration) or the process of reorganizing the food molecules without additional oxygen (anaerobic respiration ). Humans and other animals need a minimum intake of food energy to sustain their metabolism and to drive their muscles. Foods are composed chiefly of carbohydrates , fats , proteins , water , vitamins , and minerals . Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water represent virtually all the weight of food, with vitamins and minerals making up only a small percentage of the weight. (Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins comprise ninety percent of the dry weight of foods
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Carbohydrate
A CARBOHYDRATE is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula C_m_(H2O)_n_ (where _m_ could be different from _n_). This formula holds true for monosaccharides . Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose , a sugar component of DNA , has the empirical formula C5H10O4. Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones . The term is most common in biochemistry , where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars , starch , and cellulose . The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides , disaccharides , oligosaccharides , and polysaccharides . Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest (lower molecular weight ) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars
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Sugar
SUGAR is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates , many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose , and galactose . The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes ) and it is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea ). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk . Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides . Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Diet food substitutes for sugar , include aspartame and sucralose , a chlorinated derivative of sucrose
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Dietary Fiber
DIETARY FIBER or ROUGHAGE is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants. It has two main components: * Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, is readily fermented in the colon into gases and physiologically active byproducts, and can be prebiotic and viscous . It delays gastric emptying which in turn can cause an extended feeling of fullness. * Insoluble fiber, which does not dissolve in water, is metabolically inert and provides bulking, or it can be prebiotic and metabolically ferment in the large intestine. Bulking fibers absorb water as they move through the digestive system , easing defecation .Dietary fibers can act by changing the nature of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract and by changing how other nutrients and chemicals are absorbed. Some types of soluble fiber absorb water to become a gelatinous, viscous substance which is fermented by bacteria in the digestive tract. Some types of insoluble fiber have bulking action and are not fermented
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Fat
FAT is one of the three main macronutrients , along with carbohydrate and protein . Fats, also known as triglycerides , are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol . The terms "oil ", "fat", and "lipid " are often confused. "Oil" normally refers to a fat with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature , while "fat" may specifically refer to fats that are solids at room temperature. "Lipid" is the general term, though a lipid is not necessarily a triglyceride . Fats, like other lipids, are generally hydrophobic , and are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat
Fat
is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic functions. They are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans). Some fatty acids that are set free by the digestion of fats are called essential because they cannot be syn