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Cattail
TYPHA /ˈtaɪfə/ is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae . These plants have many common names, in British English as BULRUSH, or REEDMACE, in American English as CATTAIL, PUNKS, or CORN DOG GRASS, in Australia
Australia
as CUMBUNGI or BULRUSH, in Canada
Canada
as BULRUSH or CATTAIL, and in New Zealand as RAUPō. Other taxa of plants may be known as bulrush , including some sedges in Scirpus and related genera. The genus is largely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
, where it is found in a variety of wetland habitats. The rhizomes are edible. Evidence of preserved starch grains on grinding stones suggests they were already eaten in Europe
Europe
30,000 years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 General ecology * 3 Accepted species and natural hybrids * 4 Uses * 4.1 Chair seating * 4.2 Culinary uses * 4.3 Agriculture * 4.4 Building material * 4.5 Paper
Paper
* 4.6 Fiber * 4.7 Biofuel * 4.8 Other uses * 5 References * 6 External links DESCRIPTION Typha
Typha
are aquatic or semi-aquatic, rhizomatous, herbaceous perennial plants . :925 The leaves are glabrous (hairless), linear, alternate and mostly basal on a simple, jointless stem that bears the flowering spikes
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Typha Latifolia
TYPHA LATIFOLIA (BROADLEAF CATTAIL, BULRUSH, COMMON BULRUSH, COMMON CATTAIL, CAT-O\'-NINE-TAILS, GREAT REEDMACE, COOPER\'S REED, CUMBUNGI) is a perennial herbaceous plant in the genus Typha
Typha
. It is found as a native plant species in North and South America, Europe, Eurasia , and Africa. In Canada, broadleaf cattail occurs in all provinces and also in the Yukon and Northwest Territories , and in the United States, it is native to all states except Hawaii. It is an introduced and invasive species , and considered a noxious weed , in Australia
Australia
and Hawaii
Hawaii
. It is not native but has been reported in Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines. Typha
Typha
latifolia has been found in a variety of climates, including tropical, subtropical, southern and northern temperate, humid coastal, and dry continental. It is found at elevations from sea level to 7,500 feet (2,300 m). Typha
Typha
latifolia is an "obligate wetland" species, meaning that it is always found in or near water. The species generally grows in flooded areas where the water depth does not exceed 2.6 feet (0.8 meters). However, it has also been reported growing in floating mats in slightly deeper water. T. latifolia grows mostly in fresh water but also occurs in slightly brackish marshes
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales * Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek composite word (_angeion_, "case" or "casing", and _sperma_, "seed") meaning "enclosed seeds", after the enclosed condition of the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , during the range 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous , became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya
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Monocotyledon
An economically important monocot SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION _ Kingdom: Plantae Clade_: Angiosperms
Angiosperms
_Clade_: MONOCOTS TYPE GENUS _ Lilium
Lilium
_ L. ORDERS * alismatid monocots * Acorales * Alismatales * lilioid monocots * Asparagales * Dioscoreales * Liliales * Pandanales * Petrosaviales * commelinid monocots * Arecales * Commelinales * Poales * Zingiberales
Zingiberales
SYNONYMS * Alternifoliae Bessey * Endogenae DC. * Lilianae Takht. * Liliatae Cronquist , Takht. & W.Zimm. * Liliidae Takht. * Liliopsida Batsch * Monocotyleae Eichler * Monocotyledoneae E.Morren ex Mez * MononocotyledonesMONOCOTYLEDONS (/ˌmɒnəˌkɒtəˈliːdən, -ˌkɒtˈliː-/ ), commonly referred to as MONOCOTS, (LILIANAE _sensu _ Chase ">_ Allium crenulatum _ ( Asparagales ), an onion, with typical monocot perianth and parallel leaf venation Onion
Onion
slice: Parallel veins in cross section GENERALThe monocots or monocotyledons have, as the name implies, a single (mono-) cotyledon , or embryonic leaf, in their seeds
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Commelinids
In plant taxonomy, COMMELINIDS (originally COMMELINOIDS ) (plural, not capitalised) is a name used by the APG IV system for a clade within the monocots , which in its turn is a clade within the angiosperms . The commelinids are the only clade that the APG has informally named within the monocots. The remaining monocots are a paraphyletic unit. Also known as the COMMELINID MONOCOTS it forms one of three groupings within the monocots, and the final branch, the other two groups being the alismatid monocots and the lilioid monocots . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Subdivision * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONMembers of the commelinid clade have cell walls containing UV -fluorescent ferulic acid . TAXONOMYThe commelinids were first recognized as a formal group in 1967 by Armen Takhtajan , who named them the Commelinidae and assigned them to a subclass of the monocots. However, by the release of his 1980 system of classification, he had merged this subclass into a larger one no longer considered to be a clade. The commelinids constitute a well-supported clade within the monocots, and this clade has been recognized in all four APG classification systems
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Poales
See text The POALES are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons , and includes families of plants such as the grasses , bromeliads , and sedges . Sixteen plant families are currently recognized by botanists to be part of Poales. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Evolution and phylogeny * 2.2 Diversity * 3 Uses * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION _ Billbergia pyramidalis _ of family Bromeliaceae The flowers are typically small, enclosed by bracts, and arranged in inflorescences (except in the genus _ Mayaca _, with solitary terminal flowers). The flowers of many species are wind pollinated; the seeds usually contain starch . TAXONOMYThe APG III system (2009) accepts the order within a monocot clade called commelinids , and accepts the following 16 families: * Anarthriaceae * Bromeliaceae * Centrolepidaceae * Cyperaceae * Ecdeiocoleaceae * Eriocaulaceae * Flagellariaceae * Joinvilleaceae * Juncaceae * Mayacaceae * Poaceae * Rapateaceae * Restionaceae * Thurniaceae * Typhaceae * Xyridaceae The earlier APG system (1998) adopted the same placement of the order, although it used the spelling "commelinoids"
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Typhaceae
Sparganium Typha
Typha
The TYPHACEAE /taɪˈfeɪsiː/ are a family of flowering plants . The botanical name for the family has been recognized by most taxonomists. The APG II system , of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system , 1998), also recognizes this family, and assigns it to the order Poales in the clade commelinids , in the monocots . The family then consisted of one genus ( Typha
Typha
), totalling a dozen species of perennial plants of wet habitats. More recently, the APG III system of 2009 included a second genus, Sparganium , in this family. The two genera together have a total of 51 known species. The Cronquist system , of 1981, also recognized such a family and placed it in the order Typhales , in the subclass Commelinidae in class Liliopsida in division Magnoliophyta . The Wettstein system , last updated in 1935, placed the family in order Pandanales
Pandanales
. Members can be recognized as large marsh herbs with two-ranked leaves and a brownish compact spike of unisexual flowers . The earliest fossils, including pollen and flowers, have been recovered from late Cretaceous deposits. REFERENCES * ^ Stevens, P. F. "ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY WEBSITE, version 12.". Typhaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 9 July 2013
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce , which he called _Pinus abies_. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is _Picea abies_. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature ). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and _vice versa_). Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently
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Food Energy
FOOD ENERGY is chemical energy that animals (including humans ) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration . Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
may either involve the chemical reaction of food molecules with molecular oxygen (aerobic respiration) or the process of reorganizing the food molecules without additional oxygen (anaerobic respiration ). Humans and other animals need a minimum intake of food energy to sustain their metabolism and to drive their muscles. Foods are composed chiefly of carbohydrates , fats , proteins , water , vitamins , and minerals . Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water represent virtually all the weight of food, with vitamins and minerals making up only a small percentage of the weight. (Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins comprise ninety percent of the dry weight of foods. ) Organisms derive food energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins as well as from organic acids , polyols , and ethanol present in the diet. Some diet components that provide little or no food energy, such as water, minerals, vitamins, cholesterol, and fiber, may still be necessary to health and survival for other reasons. Water, minerals, vitamins, and cholesterol are not broken down (they are used by the body in the form in which they are absorbed) and so cannot be used for energy. Fiber cannot be completely digested by most animals, including humans
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Carbohydrate
A CARBOHYDRATE is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula C_m_(H2O)_n_ (where _m_ could be different from _n_). This formula holds true for monosaccharides . Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose , a sugar component of DNA , has the empirical formula C5H10O4. Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones . The term is most common in biochemistry , where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars , starch , and cellulose . The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides , disaccharides , oligosaccharides , and polysaccharides . Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest (lower molecular weight ) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars. The word _saccharide_ comes from the Greek word _σάκχαρον_ (_sákkharon_), meaning "sugar". While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose . For example, grape sugar is the monosaccharide glucose , cane sugar is the disaccharide sucrose , and milk sugar is the disaccharide lactose . Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g
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Sugar
SUGAR is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates , many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose , and galactose . The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes ) and it is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea ). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk . Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides . Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Diet food substitutes for sugar , include aspartame and sucralose , a chlorinated derivative of sucrose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants and are present in sugarcane and sugar beet in sufficient concentrations for efficient commercial extraction. The world production of sugar in 2011 was about 168 million tonnes. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in developed countries ), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day
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Dietary Fiber
DIETARY FIBER or ROUGHAGE is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants. It has two main components: * Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, is readily fermented in the colon into gases and physiologically active byproducts, and can be prebiotic and viscous . It delays gastric emptying which in turn can cause an extended feeling of fullness. * Insoluble fiber, which does not dissolve in water, is metabolically inert and provides bulking, or it can be prebiotic and metabolically ferment in the large intestine. Bulking fibers absorb water as they move through the digestive system , easing defecation .Dietary fibers can act by changing the nature of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract and by changing how other nutrients and chemicals are absorbed. Some types of soluble fiber absorb water to become a gelatinous, viscous substance which is fermented by bacteria in the digestive tract. Some types of insoluble fiber have bulking action and are not fermented. Lignin , a major dietary insoluble fiber source, may alter the rate and metabolism of soluble fibers. Other types of insoluble fiber, notably resistant starch , are fully fermented. Some but not all soluble plant fibers block intestinal mucosal adherence and translocation of potentially pathogenic bacteria and may therefore modulate intestinal inflammation, an effect that has been termed contrabiotic
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Fat
FAT is one of the three main macronutrients , along with carbohydrate and protein . Fats, also known as triglycerides , are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol . The terms "oil ", "fat", and "lipid " are often confused. "Oil" normally refers to a fat with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature , while "fat" may specifically refer to fats that are solids at room temperature. "Lipid" is the general term, though a lipid is not necessarily a triglyceride . Fats, like other lipids, are generally hydrophobic , and are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat
Fat
is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic functions. They are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans). Some fatty acids that are set free by the digestion of fats are called essential because they cannot be synthesized in the body from simpler constituents. There are two essential fatty acids (EFAs) in human nutrition: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid ) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid ). Other lipids needed by the body can be synthesized from these and other fats. Fats and other lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas . Fats and oils are categorized according to the number and bonding of the carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain
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