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Cattail
TYPHA /ˈtaɪfə/ is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae
Typhaceae
. These plants have many common names, in British English
British English
as BULRUSH, or REEDMACE, in American English as CATTAIL, PUNKS, or CORN DOG GRASS, in Australia
Australia
as CUMBUNGI or BULRUSH, in Canada
Canada
as BULRUSH or CATTAIL, and in New Zealand as RAUPō. Other taxa of plants may be known as bulrush , including some sedges in Scirpus
Scirpus
and related genera. The genus is largely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
, where it is found in a variety of wetland habitats. The rhizomes are edible. Evidence of preserved starch grains on grinding stones suggests they were already eaten in Europe
Europe
30,000 years ago
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International Unit
In pharmacology , the INTERNATIONAL UNIT is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances. International units are used to quantify vitamins , hormones , some medications , vaccines , blood products , and similar biologically active substances. The name INTERNATIONAL UNIT has often been capitalized (in English and other languages), although major English-language dictionaries treat it as a common noun and thus use lower case. The name has several accepted abbreviations
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Milligram
The KILOGRAM or KILOGRAMME (SI unit symbol: KG) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud , France. It is the only metric base unit which is defined by an artifact. The kilogram was originally defined as the weight of a litre (cubic decimetre) of water at the freezing point. That was an inconvenient quantity to precisely replicate, so in the late 18th century, a platinum artefact was fashioned as a standard for it. That artefact, or an exact replica thereof, has been the standard of mass for the metric system ever since. While the kilogram artefact is stored in laboratory conditions, it has been subject to deterioration as a result of handling and cleaning
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Dietary Reference Intake
The DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKE (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States) . It was introduced in 1997 in order to broaden the existing guidelines known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs, see below). The DRI values differ from those used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada, which uses Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs) and Daily Values (%DV) which were based on outdated RDAs from 1968 but in the U.S. have been updated as of 2016
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA /ˈdʒɛnərə/ ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis
Felis
silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Microgram
In the metric system , a MICROGRAM or MICROGRAMME (μG) is a unit of mass equal to one billionth (6991100000000000000♠1×10−9) of a kilogram , one millionth (6994100000000000000♠1×10−6) of a gram , or one thousandth (6997100000000000000♠1×10−3) of a milligram. The unit symbol is μG according to the International System of Units . In μg the prefix symbol for micro- is the Greek letter μ (Mu) . The recommended but questionable symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is MCG. ABBREVIATION AND SYMBOL CONFUSIONWhen the Greek lowercase “μ” (Mu) in the symbol μg is typographically unavailable, it is logically replaced by the Latin lowercase “u”. The United States-based Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) and the U.S
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Selenium In Biology
Although it is toxic in large doses, SELENIUM is an essential micronutrient for animals. In plants, it sometimes occurs in amounts toxic as forage , e.g. locoweed . Selenium
Selenium
is a component of the amino acids selenocysteine and selenomethionine . In humans, selenium is a trace element nutrient that functions as cofactor for glutathione peroxidases and certain forms of thioredoxin reductase . Selenium-containing proteins are produced from inorganic selenium via the intermediacy of selenophosphate (PSeO33−)
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Vitamin K
VITAMIN K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues. The vitamin K-related modification of the proteins allows them to bind calcium ions, which they cannot do otherwise. Without vitamin K, blood coagulation is seriously impaired, and uncontrolled bleeding occurs. Preliminary clinical research indicates that deficiency of vitamin K may weaken bones, potentially leading to osteoporosis , and may promote calcification of arteries and other soft tissues. Chemically, the vitamin K family comprises 2-methyl - 1,4-naphthoquinone (3-) derivatives . Vitamin
Vitamin
K includes two natural vitamers : vitamin K1 and vitamin K2
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Dietary Element
In the context of nutrition, a MINERAL is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Minerals originate in the earth and cannot be made by living organisms. Plants get minerals from soil . Most of the minerals in a human diet come from eating plants and animals or from drinking water. As a group, minerals are one of the four groups of essential nutrients, the others of which are vitamins , essential fatty acids , and essential amino acids . The five major minerals in the human body are calcium , phosphorus , potassium , sodium , and magnesium . All of the remaining elements in a human body are called "trace elements". The trace elements that have a specific biochemical function in the human body are iron , cobalt , copper , zinc , manganese , molybdenum , iodine , and selenium . Most chemical elements that are ingested by organisms are in the form of simple compounds
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Copper In Health
Copper
Copper
is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things (humans, plants, animals, and microorganisms ). In humans, copper is essential to the proper functioning of organs and metabolic processes. The human body has complex homeostatic mechanisms which attempt to ensure a constant supply of available copper, while eliminating excess copper whenever this occurs. However, like all essential elements and nutrients, too much or too little nutritional ingestion of copper can result in a corresponding condition of copper excess or deficiency in the body, each of which has its own unique set of adverse health effects. Daily dietary standards for copper have been set by various health agencies around the world. Standards adopted by some nations recommend different copper intake levels for adults, pregnant women, infants, and children, corresponding to the varying need for copper during different stages of life
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Magnesium In Biology
MAGNESIUM is an essential element IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. Magnesium occurs typically as the Mg2+ ion. It is an essential mineral nutrient (i.e., element) for life and is present in every cell type in every organism. For example, ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main source of energy in cells, must be bound to a magnesium ion in order to be biologically active. What is called ATP is often actually Mg-ATP. As such, magnesium plays a role in the stability of all polyphosphate compounds in the cells, including those associated with the synthesis of DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
. Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or synthesizing ATP, or those that use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA
DNA
and RNA. In plants, magnesium is necessary for synthesis of chlorophyll and photosynthesis
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British English
BRITISH ENGLISH is the English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
, and occasionally Yorkshire , whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language
English language
native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the de facto language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas
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Scirpus
About 120; see text SYNONYMS * Chamaeschoenus Ehrh. * Leiophyllum Ehrh. * Dichismus Raf. * Diplarinus Raf. * Seidlia Opiz * Actaeogeton Steud. * Blepharolepis Nees * Nemocharis Beurl. * Taphrogiton Montandon * Maximoviczia A.P.Khokhr. * Maximowicziella A.P.Khokhr.SCIRPUS is a genus of aquatic, grass-like species in the family Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
(the sedges), many with the common names CLUB-RUSH or BULRUSH (see also bulrush for other plant genera so-named). Other common names are DEERGRASS or GRASSWEED. They have grass-like leaves, and clusters of small spikelets, often brown. Some species (e.g. S. lacustris) can reach a height of 3 m, while others (e.g. S. supinus) are much smaller, only reaching 20–30 cm tall. The genus has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution , found on every continent except Africa
Africa
and Antarctica
Antarctica

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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere highlighted in blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North Pole
North Pole
The NORTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the equator . For other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North
North
pole
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