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Catholicism
CATHOLICISM (from Greek καθολικισμός, katholikismos, "universal doctrine") is a term which in its broadest sense refers to the beliefs and practices of Christian denominations that describe themselves as Catholic in accordance with the Four Marks of the Church , as expressed in the Nicene Creed
Creed
of the First Council of Constantinople in 381: " in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church. The most frequent use is to refer to the faith and practices of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, consisting of the Latin Church
Latin Church
and 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Pope
Pope
in Rome . However, the description "Catholic" is also used by other denominations such as the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
, the Oriental Orthodox Church , the Assyrian Church of the East
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Christ (title)
In Christianity
Christianity
, the CHRIST (Greek word Χριστός, Christós, meaning "the anointed one") is a title for the saviour and redeemer who would bring salvation to the Jewish people
Jewish people
and mankind. Christians believe that Jesus
Jesus
is the Jewish messiah called Christ in both the Hebrew Bible
Bible
and the Christian
Christian
Old Testament
Old Testament
. Christ, used by Christians
Christians
as both a name and a title , is synonymous with Jesus
Jesus
. The role of the Christ in Christianity
Christianity
originated from the concept of the messiah in Judaism
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Jesus In Christianity
In Christianity, Jesus
Jesus
is the Messiah
Messiah
( Christ
Christ
) and through his crucifixion and resurrection , humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life . These teachings emphasize that as the willing Lamb of God
Lamb of God
, Jesus
Jesus
chose to suffer on the cross at Calvary as a sign of his full obedience to the will of God the Father
God the Father
, as an "agent and servant of God". The choice Jesus
Jesus
made thus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam
Adam
's disobedience. Christians believe that Jesus
Jesus
was both human and divine—the Son of God
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Latin Cross
This is a list of CHRISTIAN CROSS VARIANTS. The Christian cross
Christian cross
, with or without a figure of Christ included, is the main religious symbol of Christianity
Christianity
. A cross with figure of Christ affixed to it is termed a CRUCIFIX and the figure is often referred to as the CORPUS ( Latin
Latin
for "body"). The term GREEK CROSS designates a cross with arms of equal length, as in a plus sign, while the term LATIN CROSS designates a cross with an elongated descending arm. Numerous other variants have been developed during the medieval period . Christian crosses are used widely in churches, on top of church buildings, on bibles, in heraldry, in personal jewelry, on hilltops, and elsewhere as an attestation or other symbol of Christianity. Crosses are a prominent feature of Christian cemeteries , either carved on gravestones or as sculpted stelae
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The Gospel
In Christianity , THE GOSPEL (Greek : εὐαγγέλιον euangélion; Old English : gospel), or THE GOOD NEWS, is the news of the coming of the Kingdom of God
Kingdom of God
(Mark 1:14-15), and of Jesus
Jesus
's death on the cross and resurrection to restore people\'s relationship with God . It may also include the descent of the Holy Spirit upon believers and the second coming of Jesus. The message of good news is described as a narrative in the four canonical gospels . The message of good news is described as theology in many of the New Testament letters . It relates to the saving acts of God due to the work of Jesus
Jesus
on the cross and Jesus\' resurrection from the dead which bring reconciliation ("atonement") between people and God
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Ministry Of Jesus
MINISTRY may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Government * 2 Religion * 3 Music * 4 Fiction * 5 See also GOVERNMENT * Ministry (collective executive) , the complete body of government ministers under the leadership of a prime minister * Ministry (government department) , a department of a governmentRELIGION* Christian ministry , activity by Christians to spread or express their faith *
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Constantine The Great
CONSTANTINE THE GREAT (Latin : Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek : Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February c. 272 AD – 22 May 337 AD), also known as CONSTANTINE I or SAINT CONSTANTINE (in the Orthodox Church as SAINT CONSTANTINE THE GREAT, EQUAL-TO-THE-APOSTLES), was a Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
of Illyrian origin from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius , a Roman Army
Roman Army
officer, and his consort Helena . His father became Caesar , the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian and Galerius . In 305, Constantius raised himself to the rank of Augustus
Augustus
, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain)
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Christian Tradition
CHRISTIAN TRADITION is a collection of traditions consisting of practices or beliefs associated with Christianity . These ecclesiastical traditions have more or less authority based on the nature of the practices or beliefs and on the group in question. Many churches have traditional practices, such as particular patterns of worship or rites, that developed over time. Deviations from such patterns are sometimes considered unacceptable or heretical . Similarly, traditions can be stories or history that are or were widely accepted without being part of Christian doctrine
Christian doctrine
, e.g., the crucifixion of Saint Peter or the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in India
India
, which are widely believed to have happened but are not recorded in scripture
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Creed
A CREED (also known as a confession, symbol, or statement of faith) is a statement of the shared beliefs of a religious community in the form of a fixed formula summarizing core tenets. One of the most widely used creeds in Christianity
Christianity
is the Nicene Creed
Creed
, first formulated in AD 325 at the First Council of Nicaea . It was based on Christian understanding of the Canonical Gospels
Canonical Gospels
, the letters of the New Testament
New Testament
and to a lesser extent the Old Testament . Affirmation of this creed, which describes the Trinity
Trinity
, is generally taken as a fundamental test of orthodoxy for most Christian denominations . The Apostles\' Creed
Creed
is also broadly accepted. Some Christian denominations and other groups have rejected the authority of those creeds
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Virgin Birth Of Jesus
VIRGINITY is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse . There are cultural and religious traditions that place special value and significance on this state, predominantly towards unmarried females, associated with notions of personal purity, honor and worth. Like chastity , the concept of virginity has traditionally involved sexual abstinence . The concept of virginity usually involves moral or religious issues and can have consequences in terms of social status and in interpersonal relationships . Although virginity has social implications and had significant legal implications in some societies in the past, it has no legal consequences in most societies today. The term virgin originally only referred to sexually inexperienced women, but has evolved to encompass a range of definitions, as found in traditional, modern, and ethical concepts
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Holy Spirit In Christianity
For the majority of Christian
Christian
denominations, the HOLY SPIRIT or HOLY GHOST is the third person (hypostasis ) of the Trinity
Trinity
: the Triune God manifested as Father , Son , and Holy Spirit; each person itself being God . Some Christian
Christian
theologians identify the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
with the Ruach Hakodesh (Holy Breath) in Jewish scripture, and with many similar names including: the Ruach Elohim (Spirit of God), Ruach YHWH (Spirit of Yahweh ), Ruach Hakmah (Spirit of Wisdom); In the New Testament it is identified, among others, with the Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of Truth, the Paraclete
Paraclete
and the Holy Spirit. The New Testament
New Testament
details a close relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus
Jesus
during his earthly life and ministry
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Pneumatology (Christianity)
In Christian theology
Christian theology
, pneumatology refers to the study of the Holy Spirit . Pneuma (πνεῦμα) is Greek for "breath ", which metaphorically describes a non-material being or influence. The English word comes from two Greek words: πνευμα (pneuma, spirit) and λογος (logos, teaching about). Pneumatology would normally include study of the person of the Holy Spirit, and the works of the Holy Spirit. This latter category would normally include Christian teachings on new birth , spiritual gifts (charismata), Spirit-baptism , sanctification , the inspiration of prophets , and the indwelling of the Holy Trinity
Trinity
(which in itself covers many different aspects). Different Christian denominations have different theological approaches. Church history contains four critical discussions that have served to progressively define Christian pneumatology: * Patristic period
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Christian Mission
A CHRISTIAN MISSION is an organized effort to spread Christianity
Christianity
. Missions often involve sending individuals and groups, called missionaries , across boundaries, most commonly geographical boundaries, for the purpose of proselytism (conversion to Christianity, or from one Christian tradition to another). This involves evangelism (preaching a set of beliefs for the purpose of conversion), and humanitarian work, especially among the poor and disadvantaged. There are a few different kinds of mission trips: short-term, long-term, relational and ones meant simply for helping people in need. Some might choose to dedicate their whole lives to missions as well. Missionaries have the authority to preach the Christian faith (and sometimes to administer sacraments), and provide humanitarian work to improve economic development , literacy , education , health care , and orphanages
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God The Son
GOD THE SON (Greek : Θεός ὁ υἱός) is the second person of the Trinity
Trinity
in Christian theology
Christian theology
. The doctrine of the Trinity identifies Jesus
Jesus
as the metaphysical embodiment of God the Son, united in essence (consubstantial ) but distinct in person with regard to God the Father and God the Holy Spirit (the first and third persons of the Trinity). In these teachings, God the Son
God the Son
pre-existed before incarnation , is co-eternal with God the Father (and the Holy Spirit), both before Creation and after the End (see Eschatology
Eschatology
). Son of God for some draws attention to his humanity, whereas God the Son
God the Son
refers more generally to his divinity , including his pre-incarnate existence
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Crucifixion Of Jesus
The CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS occurred in 1st century Judea , most probably between the years 30 and 33 AD. Jesus' crucifixion is described in the four canonical gospels , referred to in the New Testament epistles , attested to by other ancient sources , and is established as a historical event confirmed by non-Christian sources, although, among historians, there is no consensus on the precise details of what exactly occurred. According to the canonical gospels, Jesus
Jesus
, the Christ , was arrested , tried , and sentenced by Pontius Pilate
Pontius Pilate
to be scourged , and finally crucified by the Romans . Jesus
Jesus
was stripped of his clothing and offered wine mixed with gall to drink, before being crucified. He was then hung between two convicted thieves and according to Mark's Gospel, died some six hours later
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Old Testament
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e The OLD TESTAMENT (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible