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Catherine I
Catherine I (Russian: Екатери́на I Алексе́евна, tr. Yekaterina I Alekseyevna, born Polish: Marta Helena Skowrońska, later known as Marta Samuilovna Skavronskaya; 15 April [O.S. 5 April] 1684 – 17 May [O.S. 6 May] 1727) was the second wife of Peter the Great
Peter the Great
and Empress
Empress
of Russia
Russia
from 1725 until her death.Contents1 Life as a servant 2 Marriage and family life2.1 Descendants 2.2 Siblings3 Succession to the Throne 4 Death 5 Assessment and legacy 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksLife as a servant[edit] The life of Catherine I was said by Voltaire
Voltaire
to be nearly as extraordinary as that of Peter the Great
Peter the Great
himself. There are no documents that confirm her origins. Said to have been born on 15 April 1684 (o.s
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Old Style
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day
Lady Day
(25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar.[2][3][4] Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Plague (disease)
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.[2] Symptoms include fever, weakness and headache.[1] Usually this begins one to seven days after exposure.[2] In the bubonic form there is also swelling of lymph nodes, while in the septicemic form tissues may turn black and die, and in the pneumonic form shortness of breath, cough and chest pain may occur.[1] Bubonic and septicemic plague is generally spread by flea bites or handling an infected animal.[1] The pneumonitic form is generally spread between people through the air via infectious droplets.[1] Diagnosis is typically by finding the bacterium in fluid from a lymph node, blood or sputum.[2] Those at high risk may be vaccinated.[2] Those exposed to a case of pneumonic plague may be treated with preventative medication.[2] If infected, treatment is with antibiotics and supportive care.[2] Typically antibiotics include a combination of gentamicin and a fluoroquinolone.[3] The risk of death with treatment is
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Minsk
Minsk
Minsk
(Belarusian: Мінск, pronounced [mʲinsk]; Russian: Минск, [mʲinsk]) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers. As the national capital, Minsk
Minsk
has a special administrative status in Belarus
Belarus
and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region
Minsk Region
(voblast) and Minsk
Minsk
raion (district). In 2013, it had a population of 2,002,600. Minsk
Minsk
is the administrative capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) and seat of the Executive Secretary. The earliest historical references to Minsk
Minsk
date to the 11th century (1067), when it was noted as a provincial city within the Principality of Polotsk. The settlement developed on the rivers
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Sweden
Coordinates: 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige[a]FlagGreater coat of armsMotto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a] "For Sweden
Sweden
– With the Times"[1]Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b] Thou ancient, thou freeRoyal anthem: Kungssången Song of the KingLocation of  Sweden  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Stockholm 5
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Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Empress And Autocrat Of All The Russias
An emperor (through Old French
Old French
empereor from Latin imperator[1]) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), mother (empress dowager), or a woman who rules in her own right (empress regnant). Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe
Europe
the title of Emperor
Emperor
has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope, due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe
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Dragoon
Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot
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Old Style And New Style Dates
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day
Lady Day
(25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar.[2][3][4] Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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Romanization Of Russian
Romanization
Romanization
of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
into the Latin script. As well as its primary use for citing Russian names and words in languages which use a Latin alphabet, romanization is also essential for computer users to input Russian text who either do not have a keyboard or word processor set up for inputting Cyrillic, or else are not capable of typing rapidly using a native Russian keyboard layout (JCUKEN)
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Roman Catholicism
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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Lutheranism
Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is a major branch of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity
Christianity
which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire
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Russian Orthodox
Coordinates: 55°42′40″N 37°37′45″E / 55.71111°N 37.62917°E / 55.71111; 37.62917Russian Orthodox Church ( Moscow
Moscow
Patriarchate)The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
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Field Marshal
Field marshal
Field marshal
(or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army, and when it is, few (if any) persons are appointed to it. It is considered as a five-star rank (OF-10) in modern-day armed forces in many countries. Promotion to the rank of field marshal in many countries historically required extraordinary military achievement by a general (a wartime victory). However, the rank has also been used as a divisional command rank and also as a brigade command rank
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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