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Catch-22
Catch-22
Catch-22
is a satirical novel by American author Joseph Heller. He began writing it in 1953; the novel was first published in 1961. Often cited as one of the most significant novels of the twentieth century,[2] it uses a distinctive non-chronological third-person omniscient narration, describing events from the points of view of different characters. The separate storylines are out of sequence so the timeline develops along with the plot. The novel is set during World War II, from 1942 to 1944. It mainly follows the life of Captain John Yossarian, a U.S. Army Air Forces B-25
B-25
bombardier. Most of the events in the book occur while the fictional 256th Squadron is based on the island of Pianosa, in the Mediterranean Sea, west of Italy
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Jaroslav Hašek
Jaroslav Hašek
Jaroslav Hašek
(Czech: [ˈjaroslav ˈɦaʃɛk]; 30 April 1883 – 3 January 1923) was a Czech writer, humorist, satirist, journalist, bohemian and anarchist. He is best known for his novel The Good Soldier Švejk, an unfinished collection of farcical incidents about a soldier in World War I
World War I
and a satire on the ineptitude of authority figures. The novel has been translated into about 60 languages, making it the most translated novel in Czech literature.Contents1 Life and work1.1 Youth 1.2 Political activism 1.3 Marriage 1.4 In the Austro-Hungarian army 1.5 In Russia 1.6 Later years2 Legacy 3 Namesakes 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife and work[edit] Youth[edit] Hašek was born in Prague, Bohemia
Bohemia
(then within Austria-Hungary, now capital of the Czech Republic), the son of high-school math teacher Josef Hašek and his wife Kateřina
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United States Army Air Forces
The United States
United States
Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force,[1] was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II
World War II
(1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States
United States
Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
of today, one of the five uniformed military services. The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which in 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply (which in 1943 became the Army Service Forces), and the Army Air Forces
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Loyalty Oaths
A loyalty oath is an oath of loyalty to an organization, institution, or state of which an individual is a member. In the United States, such an oath has often indicated that the affiant has not been a member of a particular organization or organizations mentioned in the oath.Contents1 In the United States1.1 Civil War and Reconstruction 1.2 Truman era1.2.1 Executive Order 9835
Executive Order 9835
" Loyalty
Loyalty
Order" (1947) 1.2.2 The University of California
California
loyalty oath (1950) 1.2.3 Garner v. Board of Public Works
Garner v. Board of Public Works
(1951) 1.2.4 Speiser v. Randall
Speiser v

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Anachronism
An anachronism (from the Greek ἀνά ana, "against" and χρόνος khronos, "time") is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of persons, events, objects, or customs from different periods of time. The most common type of anachronism is an object misplaced in time, but it may be a verbal expression, a technology, a philosophical idea, a musical style, a material, a plant or animal, a custom or anything else associated with a particular period in time so that it is incorrect to place it outside its proper temporal domain. An anachronism may be either intentional or unintentional. Intentional anachronisms may be introduced into a literary or artistic work to help a contemporary audience engage more readily with a historical period. Anachronism
Anachronism
can also be used for purposes of rhetoric, comedy, or shock
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McCarthyism
McCarthyism
McCarthyism
is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.[1] The term refers to U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy
Joseph McCarthy
and has its origins in the period in the United States
United States
known as the Second Red Scare, lasting roughly from 1947 to 1956 and characterized by heightened political repression as well as a campaign spreading fear of Communist influence on American institutions and of espionage by Soviet agents. What would become known as the McCarthy era began before McCarthy's term in 1953
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Charles Erwin Wilson
Charles Erwin Wilson
Charles Erwin Wilson
(July 18, 1890 – September 26, 1961) was an American engineer and businessman who served as United States Secretary of Defense from 1953 to 1957 under President Dwight D. Eisenhower.[1] Known as "Engine Charlie",[2] he was previously the president and chief executive officer of General Motors. In the wake of the Korean War, he cut the defense budget significantly.Contents1 Early life and career 2 General Motors
General Motors
career 3 Secretary of Defense 4 Human experimentation 5 Later life and death 6 Nickname 7 References 8 External linksEarly life and career[edit] Wilson was born in Minerva, Ohio, the son of Thomas E
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Jaundice
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.[2][5] It is commonly associated with itchiness.[1] The feces may be pale and the urine dark.[3] Jaundice
Jaundice
in babies occurs in over half in the first week following birth and in most is not a problem.[2][5] If bilirubin levels in babies are very high for too long, a type of brain damage, known as kernicterus, may occur.[6] Causes of jaundice vary from non-serious to potentially fatal.[7] Levels of bilirubin in blood are normally below 1.0 mg/dL (17 µmol/L) and levels over 2–3
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United States Army Criminal Investigation Command
The United States
United States
Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC, usually abbreviated as just CID) investigates felony crimes and serious violations of military law & the United States
United States
Code within the United States
United States
Army. The command is a separate military investigative force with investigative autonomy; CID special agents report through the CID chain of command to the USACIDC Commanding General, who reports directly to the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Secretary of the Army
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Free Association (psychology)
Free association is a technique used in psychoanalysis (and also in psychodynamic theory) which was originally devised by Sigmund Freud out of the hypnotic method of his mentor and colleague, Josef Breuer. Freud described it as such: "The importance of free association is that the patients spoke for themselves, rather than repeating the ideas of the analyst; they work through their own material, rather than parroting another's suggestions".[1]Contents1 Origins 2 Characteristics 3 Freudian approach 4 Further developments4.1 Jung 4.2 Ferenczi 4.3 Lacan 4.4 20th Century5 Criticism 6 Coda 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksOrigins[edit] Freud developed the technique as an alternative to hypnosis, because he perceived the latter as subjected to more fallibility, and because patients could recover and comprehend crucial memories while fully conscious
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Joseph McCarthy
Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was an American politician who served as U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin
Wisconsin
from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in the United States in which Cold War
Cold War
tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion.[1] He is known for alleging that numerous Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers had infiltrated the United States federal government, universities, film industry, and elsewhere. Ultimately, the smear tactics that he used led him to be censured by the U.S. Senate. The term "McCarthyism", coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy's practices, was soon applied to similar anti-communist activities
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Irving Peress
Irving Peress (July 31, 1917 – November 13, 2014) was a New York City dentist who became a primary target for investigation of alleged communist leanings during the 1954 Army-McCarthy hearings.Contents1 Early life 2 Military service 3 Target of McCarthy 4 Later events 5 Retirement and death 6 References 7 External linksEarly life[edit] Peress was born in the Bronx
Bronx
on July 31, 1917.[1] The son of a tailor
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Arnošt Lustig
Arnošt Lustig
Arnošt Lustig
(Czech pronunciation: [ˈarnoʃt ˈlustɪk]; 21 December 1926 – 26 February 2011)[1] was a renowned Czech Jewish author of novels, short stories, plays, and screenplays whose works have often involved the Holocaust.Contents1 Life and work 2 Arnošt Lustig
Arnošt Lustig
Prize 3 References 4 External linksLife and work[edit] Lustig was born in Prague. As a Jewish boy in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
during World War II, he was sent in 1942 to the Theresienstadt concentration camp, from where he was later transported to the Auschwitz concentration camp, followed by time in the Buchenwald concentration camp.[2] In 1945, he escaped from a train carrying him to the Dachau concentration camp when the engine was destroyed by an American fighter-bomber
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Sanity
Sanity (from Latin: sānitās) refers to the soundness, rationality and healthiness of the human mind, as opposed to insanity. A person is not considered sane anymore just if they are irrational. In modern society, the terms have become exclusively synonymous with compos mentis (Latin: compos, having mastery of, and Latin: mentis, mind), in contrast with non compos mentis, or insane, meaning troubled conscience. A sane mind is nowadays considered healthy both from its analytical-once called rational-and emotional aspects.[1] Furthermore, according to Chesterton,[2] sanity involves wholeness, whereas insanity implies narrowness and brokenness.Contents1 Psychiatry and psychology 2 Law 3 See also 4 ReferencesPsychiatry and psychology[edit] A theory of sanity was proposed by Alfred Korzybski
Alfred Korzybski
in his general semantics. He believed sanity was tied to the structural fit or lack of thereof, of what is actually going on in the world
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Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea
Sea
is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin
Mediterranean Basin
and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe
Southern Europe
and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa
North Africa
and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually identified as a separate body of water
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General Motors
General Motors
General Motors
Company,[1] commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit
Detroit
that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was originally founded by William C. Durant
William C. Durant
on September 16, 1908 as a holding company. The company is the largest American automobile manufacturer, and one of the world's largest.[7] As of 2018, General Motors is ranked #10 on the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.[8] General Motors
General Motors
manufactures vehicles in 37 countries; its core automobile brands include Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, and Cadillac
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