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Catamarca Province
Catamarca (Spanish pronunciation: [kataˈmarka]) is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. The province has a population of 334,568 as per the 2001 census [INDEC], and covers an area of 102,602 km2. Its literacy rate is 95.5%. Neighboring provinces are (clockwise, from the north): Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Córdoba, and La Rioja. To the west it borders Chile. The capital is San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, usually shortened to Catamarca
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Aymara Language
Aymara /aɪməˈrɑː/ (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people
Aymara people
of the Andes. It is one of only a handful of Native American languages with over one million speakers.[3][4] Aymara, along with Spanish, is one of the official languages of Bolivia
Bolivia
and parts of Peru. It is also spoken, to a much lesser extent, by some communities in northern Chile, where it is a recognized minority language. Some linguists have claimed that Aymara is related to its more widely spoken neighbor, Quechua. That claim, however, is disputed. Although there are indeed similarities, like the nearly-identical phonologies, the majority position among linguists today is that the similarities are better explained as areal features rising from prolonged cohabitation, rather than natural genealogical changes that would stem from a common protolanguage. Aymara is an agglutinating and, to a certain extent, a polysynthetic language
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Microclimate
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one. The term may refer to areas as small as a few square meters or square feet (for example a garden bed or a cave) or as large as many square kilometers or square miles. Because climate is statistical, which implies spatial and temporal variation of the mean values of the describing parameters, within a region there can occur and persist over time sets of statistically distinct conditions, that is, microclimates
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Subtropical Highland Climate
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C (72 °F) in the warmest month, and above 0 °C (32 °F) in the coldest month. It typically lacks a dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year
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Arid Climate
The Desert
Desert
climate (in the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub,[citation needed] and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate. An area that features this climate usually experiences from 25 to 200 mm (7.87 inches) per year of precipitation[1] and in some years may experience no precipitation at all. Averages may be even less such as in Arica, Chile, where precipitation normals annually stand at around 1 mm per year
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Zonda Wind
Zonda wind (Spanish: viento zonda) is a regional term for the foehn wind that often occurs on the eastern slope of the Andes, in Argentina. The Zonda is a dry wind (often carrying dust) which comes from the polar maritime air, warmed by descent from the crest, which is approximately 6,000 m (20,000 ft) above sea level. It may exceed a velocity of 40 km/h (25 mph). While this type of föhn wind may occur over most central parts of western Argentina, its effects are more impressive in La Rioja, San Juan, and northern Mendoza provinces, where the mountain barrier (the Andes) is higher, while to the north the Puna plateau dissipates these winds. The Zonda wind is produced by the northeastward movement of polar fronts, and although is hot and dry at the low-lands, it is the main mechanism for snow precipitation at the high altitude chains, where it looks as viento blanco, reaching speeds sometimes over 200 km/h
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Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean
Ocean
(or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined.[1] The centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean
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Chile
Coordinates: 30°S 71°W / 30°S 71°W / -30; -71Republic of Chile República de Chile  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: Por la razón o la fuerza (Spanish) (English: "By Right or Might") [1]Anthem:  National Anthem of ChileLocation of  Chile  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Santiagoa 33°26′S 70°40′W / 33.433°S 70.667°W / -33.433; -70.667National language SpanishEthnic groups (2012[2])64% White 30% Mestizo 5% Mapuche 0.7% Aymara 0.1% Other 0.2% UnspecifiedDemonym ChileanGovernment Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentSebastián Piñera• Senate PresidentCarlos Montes Cisternas• President of the Chamber of DeputiesMaya FernándezLegislature National Congress• Upper houseSenate
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Paleontology
Paleontology, sometimes spelled palaeontology (/ˌpeɪliɒnˈtɒlədʒi, ˌpæli-, -ən-/) is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene
Holocene
Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, "old, ancient", ὄν, on (gen
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Spanish Conquest
The overseas expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadores. The Americas
Americas
were incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil and Canada, and the crown created civil and religious structures to administer the region
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List Of Sovereign States
The following is a list providing an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty. The 206 listed states can be divided into three categories based on membership within the United Nations
United Nations
system: 193 member states,[1] two observer states and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states, of which there are six member states, one observer state and nine other states). Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below
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National Institute Of Statistics And Census Of Argentina
National Statistics and Censuses Institute (Spanish: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, INDEC) is the Argentine government agency responsible for the collection and processing of statistical data. The institute also analyses economic and social indicators such as inflation rate, consumer price index and unemployment, among others.Contents1 Functions 2 History 3 Controversy 4 References 5 External linksFunctions[edit] The INDEC is supervised by different federal agencies, and is under the direct oversight of the Secretaría de Programación Económica y Regional (Secretariat of Economic and Regional Planning) of the Ministerio de Economía y Producción (Ministry of Economy and Production, MECON). The INDEC coordinates the Sistema Estadístico Nacional (National Statistics' System, SEN) through which the national, provincial and local statistical services work together
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Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common censuses include agriculture, business, and traffic censuses. The United Nations
United Nations
defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory, simultaneity and defined periodicity", and recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years
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Human Development Index
The Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the gross national income GNI (PPP) per capita is higher
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ISO 3166-2
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1. The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision
Country subdivision
code. It was first published in 1998. The purpose of ISO 3166-2 is to establish an international standard of short and unique alphanumeric codes to represent the relevant administrative divisions and dependent territories of all countries in a more convenient and less ambiguous form than their full names
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