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Cassius Dio
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius[note 2] (/ˈkæʃəs ˈdiːoʊ/; c. 155–235)[note 3] was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin. He published 80 volumes of history on Ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas
Aeneas
in Italy. The volumes documented the subsequent founding of Rome (753 BC), the formation of the Republic (509 BC), and the creation of the Empire (31 BC), up until 229 AD. Written in Ancient Greek over 22 years, Dio's work covers approximately 1,000 years of history. Many of his 80 books have survived intact, or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history.Contents1 Biography 2 Roman History 3 Literary style 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit] Lucius Cassius Dio was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator, who was born and raised at Nicaea
Nicaea
in Bithynia
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Constantine I
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(Latin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus;[2] Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February c. 272 AD[1] – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, in the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles,[3] was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD. He was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army
Roman Army
officer, and his consort Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian
Diocletian
and Galerius
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Greeks
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Publius Quinctilius Varus
Publius Quinctilius Varus
Quinctilius Varus
(46 BC Cremona, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
– September 9 AD near Kalkriese, Germany) was a Roman general and politician under the first Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Augustus. Varus is generally remembered for having lost three Roman legions when ambushed by Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
led by Arminius
Arminius
in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, whereupon he took his own life.Contents1 Background and early career 2 Marriages and children 3 Political career 4 Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
and death 5 Aftermath 6 In Popular Culture6.1 In fiction7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksBackground and early career[edit] Varus was born into the gens Quinctilia
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Pannonia
Pannonia
Pannonia
was an ancient province of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum
Noricum
and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia
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John Xiphilinus
Joannes Xiphilinus (also John Xiphilinus; Greek: Ἰωάννης Ξιφιλῖνος), epitomator of Dio Cassius, lived at Constantinople
Constantinople
during the latter half of the 11th century AD. He was a monk and the nephew of Patriarch John VIII of Constantinople, a well-known preacher (Migne, Patrologia Graeca, cxx.). The epitome of Dio was prepared by order of Michael Parapinaces (1071–1078), but is unfortunately incomplete. It comprises books 36–80, the period included being from the times of Pompey
Pompey
and Caesar down to Alexander Severus. In book 70 the reign of Antoninus Pius
Antoninus Pius
and the early years of Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
appear to have been missing in his copy, while in books 78 and 79 a mutilated original must have been used. Xiphilinus divided the work into sections, each containing the life of an emperor
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Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
Doukas
or Dukas/Ducas (Greek: Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ Δούκας, Mikhaēl VII Doukas), nicknamed Parapinakes (Παραπινάκης, lit. "minus a quarter", with reference to the devaluation of the Byzantine currency under his rule), was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078.Contents1 Life 2 Usurpers 3 Family 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading7.1 Primary sources8 External linksLife[edit] Michael VII was born c. 1050 in Constantinople, the eldest son of Constantine X Doukas
Doukas
and Eudokia Makrembolitissa.[1] He was associated with his father on the throne late in 1059, together with or shortly before his newly born brother Konstantios Doukas.[2] When Constantine X died in 1067, Michael VII was 17 years old and should have been able to rule by himself
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İzmir
İzmir
İzmir
(Turkish pronunciation: [ˈizmiɾ]) is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia
Anatolia
and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul
Istanbul
and Ankara.[1][2] It is the second most populous city on the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
after Athens, Greece
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Public Servant
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant or public servant is a person employed in the public sector employed for a government department or agency. The extent of civil servants of a state as part of the "civil service" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown (national government) employees are referred to as civil servants whereas county or city employees are not. Many consider the study of service to be a part of the field of public administration
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Constantine VII
6 June 913 – 9 November 959, Junior co-emperor 908–913 and 920–945, sole emperor 913–920 (under regency) and 945–959Predecessor AlexanderSuccessor Romanos I
Romanos I
Lekapenos Romanos IICo-emperors Romanos I Lekapenos
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Macedonia (Roman Province)
The Roman province
Roman province
of Macedonia (Latin: Provincia Macedoniae, Greek: Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) [2][3] was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved. The province incorporated ancient Macedonia, with the addition of Epirus, Thessaly, and parts of Illyria, Paeonia and Thrace. This created a much larger administrative area, to which the name of 'Macedonia' was still applied
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Praenomen
The praenomen (Classical Latin: [ˈprae̯:.noː.mɛn]; plural: praenomina) was a personal name chosen by the parents of a Roman child. It was first bestowed on the dies lustricus (day of lustration), the eighth day after the birth of a girl, or the ninth day after the birth of a boy. The praenomen would then be formally conferred a second time when girls married, or when boys assumed the toga virilis upon reaching manhood. Although it was the oldest of the tria nomina commonly used in Roman naming conventions, by the late republic, most praenomina were so common that most people were called by their praenomina only by family or close friends. For this reason, although they continued to be used, praenomina gradually disappeared from public records during imperial times
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Nicolas-Claude Fabri De Peiresc
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc
(1 December 1580 – 24 June 1637), often known simply as Peiresc, or by the Latin form of his name Peirescius, was a French astronomer, antiquary and savant, who maintained a wide correspondence with scientists, and was a successful organizer of scientific inquiry. His research included a determination of the difference in longitude of various locations in Europe, around the Mediterranean, and in North Africa.Contents1 Early life 2 Intellectual and collector 3 Astronomer 4 Final years 5 Works 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Peiresc's father was a higher magistrate and city surgeon in Provence from a wealthy noble family, who with his wife fled their home town of Aix-en- Provence
Provence
to avoid the plague raging there, settling in Belgentier
Belgentier
in Var
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Byzantine Greeks
The Byzantine Greeks
Greeks
(or Byzantines) were the Greek-speaking Christian people of Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
and the Middle Ages.[1] They spoke medieval Greek and were the main inhabitants of the lands of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire), of Constantinople
Constantinople
and Asia Minor (modern Turkey), the Greek islands, Cyprus, and portions of the southern Balkans, and formed large minorities, or pluralities, in the coastal urban centres of the Levant
Levant
and northern Egypt
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Sicily
Sicily
Sicily
(/ˈsɪsɪli/ SISS-i-lee; Italian: Sicilia [siˈtʃiːlja], Sicilian: Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is an autonomous region of Italy, in Southern Italy
Italy
along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily
Sicily
is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe,[4] and one of the most active in the world, currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high
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Fulvio Orsini
Fulvio Orsini[1] (11 December 1529 – 18 May 1600) was an Italian humanist, historian, and archaeologist. He was a descendant of the Orsini family, one of the oldest, most illustrious, and for centuries most powerful of the Roman princely families, whose origins, when stripped of legend, can be traced back to a certain Ursus de Paro, recorded at Rome
Rome
in 998.[2] Life[edit] Orsini was the natural son of Maerbale Orsini of the line of Mugnano. Cast off by his father at the age of nine, he found a refuge among the choir boys of St. John Lateran, and a protector in Canon Gentile Delfini
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