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Casio Edifice
EDIFICE are a brand of luxury watches manufactured by the japanese electronics company Casio
Casio
. TECHNOLOGYEdifice watches range from basic chronograph to more advanced models with more computerized movements. Many Edifice watches utilize Tough Solar , Casio's name for light chargeable batteries. More advanced models are "Waveceptors " and can calibrate themselves with atomic clocks via radio waves
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Watch
A WATCH is a small timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person. It is designed to keep working despite the motions caused by the person's activities. A WRISTWATCH is designed to be worn around the wrist , attached by a watch strap or other type of bracelet . A POCKET WATCH is designed for a person to carry in a pocket . Watches evolved in the 17th century from spring-powered clocks, which appeared as early as the 14th century. During most of its history the watch was a mechanical device, driven by clockwork , powered by winding a mainspring , and keeping time with an oscillating balance wheel . In the 1960s the electronic quartz watch was invented, which was powered by a battery and kept time with a vibrating quartz crystal . By the 1980s the quartz watch had taken over most of the market from the mechanical watch. Today most inexpensive and medium-priced watches, used mainly for timekeeping, have quartz movements . Expensive collectible watches, valued more for their elaborate craftsmanship, aesthetic appeal and glamorous design than for simple timekeeping, often have traditional mechanical movements, even though they are less accurate and more expensive than electronic ones. Various extra features, called "complications ", such as moon-phase displays and the different types of tourbillon , are sometimes included. Modern watches often display the day, date, month and year, and electronic watches may have many other functions
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Casio
CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD. (カシオ計算機株式会社, Kashio Keisanki Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and commercial electronics manufacturing company headquartered in Shibuya
Shibuya
, Tokyo, Japan. Its products include calculators , mobile phones , digital cameras , electronic musical instruments , and digital watches . It was founded in 1946, and in 1957 released the world's first entirely electric compact calculator. CASIO was an early digital camera innovator, and during the 1980s and 1990s, the company developed numerous affordable home electronic keyboards for musicians. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Products * 2.1 Calculators * 2.1.1 Scientific calculators * 2.1.2 Basic calculators * 2.2 Watches * 2.3 Musical instruments * 2.4 Other * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Casio
Casio
was established in April 1946 by Tadao Kashio, an engineer specializing in fabrication technology. Kashio's first major product was the yubiwa pipe, a finger ring that would hold a cigarette , allowing the wearer to smoke the cigarette down to its nub while also leaving the wearer's hands free. Japan
Japan
was impoverished immediately following World War II
World War II
, so cigarettes were valuable, and the invention was a success
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Chronograph
A CHRONOGRAPH is a specific type of watch that is used as a stopwatch combined with a display watch. A basic chronograph has an independent sweep second hand; it can be started, stopped, and returned to zero by successive pressure on the stem. Less simple chronographs use additional complications and can have multiple independent hands to measure seconds, minutes, hours and even tenths of a second. In addition, many modern chronographs use moveable bezels as tachymeters for rapid calculations of speed or distance. Louis Moinet invented the chronograph in 1816 for use in tracking astronomical objects. Chronographs were also used heavily in artillery fire in the mid to late 1800s. More modern uses of chronographs involve piloting airplanes, car racing, diving and submarine maneuvering. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Uses * 3 Function * 4 Types * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYThe term CHRONOGRAPH comes from the Greek word for time, "chronos", combined with the Greek word for writing, "graph". Early versions of the chronograph are the only ones that actually used any "writing": marking the dial with a small pen attached to the index so that the length of the pen mark would indicate how much time has elapsed. The first modern chronograph was invented by Louis Moinet in 1816, solely for working with astronomical equipment
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Solar Power
SOLAR POWER is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity , either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power , or a combination. Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic cells convert light into an electric current using the photovoltaic effect . Photovoltaics were initially solely used as a source of electricity for small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to remote homes powered by an off-grid rooftop PV system. Commercial concentrated solar power plants were first developed in the 1980s. The 392 MW Ivanpah installation is the largest concentrating solar power plant in the world, located in the Mojave Desert of California . As the cost of solar electricity has fallen, the number of grid-connected solar PV systems has grown into the millions and utility-scale solar power stations with hundreds of megawatts are being built. Solar PV is rapidly becoming an inexpensive, low-carbon technology to harness renewable energy from the Sun. The current largest photovoltaic power station in the world is the 850 MW Longyangxia Dam Solar Park, in Qinghai , China
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Casio Wave Ceptor
CASIO WAVE CEPTOR is a line of radio watches by Casio
Casio
. Wave Ceptor watches are able to set themselves to the correct time by receiving time signals from various government time services around the world. These signals are normally driven directly by ultra-accurate atomic clocks , and so by synchronizing with the signals, the Wave Ceptor watches achieve extremely high accuracy – nearly the same accuracy as the atomic clocks that drive the time signals, which is on the order of one second in three million years. The time setting signals usually come from radio emitting towers. Radio-controlled watches, require no setting or resetting of time, date, daylight saving time , or year; and like most other watches of this kind, they attempt automatic synchronization at least once every 24 hours, usually in the middle of the night. Their long-term and short-term accuracy is thus better than 500 ms . As with all radio-controlled watches they revert to free-running quartz accuracy in areas out of range or shielded from time setting signals, which gives them an accuracy equivalent to that of a standard quartz watch. The receivers to which the watches can tune themselves vary by watch submodel
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Radio Clock
A RADIO CLOCK or RADIO-CONTROL LED
LED
CLOCK (RCC) is a clock that is automatically synchronized by a time code transmitted by a radio transmitter connected to a time standard such as an atomic clock . Such a clock may be synchronized to the time sent by a single transmitter, such as many national or regional time transmitters, or may use multiple transmitters, like the Global Positioning System . Such systems may be used to automatically set clocks or for any purpose where accurate time is needed. One common style of radio-controlled clock uses time signals transmitted by dedicated terrestrial longwave radio transmitters, which emit a time code that can be demodulated and displayed by the radio controlled clock. The radio controlled clock will contain an accurate time base oscillator to maintain timekeeping if the radio signal is momentarily unavailable. Other radio controlled clocks use the time signals transmitted by dedicated transmitters in the shortwave bands. Systems using dedicated time signal stations can achieve accuracy of a few tens of milliseconds. GPS
GPS
satellite navigation receivers also internally generate accurate time information from the satellite signals
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Atomic Clock
An ATOMIC CLOCK is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave , optical , or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element. Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standards known, and are used as primary standards for international time distribution services , to control the wave frequency of television broadcasts, and in global navigation satellite systems such as GPS
GPS
. The principle of operation of an atomic clock is based on atomic physics ; it uses the microwave signal that electrons in atoms emit when they change energy levels . Early atomic clocks were based on masers at room temperature. Currently, the most accurate atomic clocks first cool the atoms to near absolute zero temperature by slowing them with lasers and probing them in atomic fountains in a microwave-filled cavity. An example of this is the NIST-F1 atomic clock, one of the national primary time and frequency standards of the United States. The accuracy of an atomic clock depends on two factors. The first factor is temperature of the sample atoms—colder atoms move much more slowly, allowing longer probe times. The second factor is the frequency and intrinsic width of the electronic transition. Higher frequencies and narrow lines increase the precision
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Radio
RADIO is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude , frequency , phase , or pulse width . When radio waves strike an electrical conductor , the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation ). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves , and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving. The electrical resonance of tuned circuits in radios allow individual stations to be selected. The electromagnetic wave is intercepted by a tuned receiving antenna . A radio receiver receives its input from an antenna and converts it into a form that is usable for the consumer, such as sound, pictures, digital data, measurement values, navigational positions, etc. Radio frequencies occupy the range from a 3 kHz to 300 GHz, although commercially important uses of radio use only a small part of this spectrum
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Casio Oceanus
CASIO OCEANUS is an elite line of Casio
Casio
watches designed for both men and women. The line uses technology from both the G-Shock and Waveceptor watch series. Originally available internationally, the Oceanus line has been discontinued in the US in favor of the Casio Edifice line. CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Models * 2.1 Oceanus 600 series * 2.2 Oceanus CACHALOT * 2.3 Oceanus 700 series * 2.4 Oceanus 1000 Series "Manta" * 3 Availability * 4 Additional Resources * 5 External links CHARACTERISTICSAll Oceanus watches are known for the following key characteristics: * Analog watchface – All Oceanus watches are analog , with some earlier models having a combined analog and digital watch face . * Five-motor drive – present on more recent models, the five-motor drive consists of five internal motors running independently to control dials for time, stopwatch, seconds, day of week, and hours. * Multi-band 5 (USA) or Multi-band 6 (Japan) – perhaps the most significant aspect of the Oceanus line is the ability of all watches to automatically synchronize with the Japanese time signal ( JJY ), the American time signal ( WWVB
WWVB
) from Colorado, and the European time signals from both England ( Time from NPL ) and Germany ( DCF77 )
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Casio Graphic Calculators
Graphic calculators made by Casio
Casio
include the touchscreen ClassPad 300 as well as the models with traditional buttons which can be divided into two main generations listed below. Casio
Casio
produced the world's first graphing calculator , the fx-7000G . CONTENTS* 1 First Generation * 1.1 Original Series * 1.2 Power Graphic Series (1990) * 1.3 Icon Menu Power Graphic series (1993) * 2 Second Generation * 2.1 9850 series (9750/9850/9950/9970) * 2.2 7400 Series * 2.3 Algebra FX series * 2.4 9860 G/GII series * 2.5 fx-CG Prizm series * 3 Programming * 3.1 First generation programming language * 3.2 Second generation programming language * 3.3 Games * 4 References * 5 External links FIRST GENERATIONORIGINAL SERIESFirst produced in 1985, these include the fx-7000G , fx-6000G , fx-6500G , fx-7200G , fx-7500G , fx-8000G , fx-8500G . POWER GRAPHIC SERIES (1990)Around 1990, the Power Graphic series introduced: F1 through F6 shortcut keys which enabled significantly greater ease of use, polar, parametric and inequality graphs; box and factor zoom; multiple graph scrolling; range initialization; integration; matrix mode; fractions; permutations; combinations; normal probabilities; SI unit symbols; Models: fx-7700G, fx-7700GB, fx-8700G, fx-8700GB. The GB models have a communications port. (French versions: fx-7800G, fx-7800GC, fx-8800G, fx-8800GC)
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Casio V.P.A.M. Calculators
CASIO V.P.A.M. CALCULATORS are scientific calculators made by Casio which use the V.P.A.M., Natural Display or Natural V.P.A.M. input methods. Visually Perfect Algebraic Method (V.P.A.M.) is an infix system for entering mathematical expressions, used by Casio
Casio
in most of its current scientific calculators . In the infix notation the precedence of mathematical operators is taken into account. According to Casio, in V.P.A.M. calculations can be input exactly as they are normally written. Functions, operators and symbols are shown on the calculator display and calculations are performed according to operator precedence. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 List of calculators * 2.1 V.P.A.M. (Visually perfect algebraic method) * 2.2 S-V.P.A.M. (Two-line, Multi-replay) * 2.2.1 W-series * 2.2.2 MS-series * 2.3 Natural Textbook Display * 2.4 Natural V.P.A.M. * 2.5 ClassWiz (High-resolution Natural Textbook Display) * 3 References * 4 See also HISTORYThe V.P.A.M. name were first introduced in 1994 with the release of the fx-991S scientific calculator in Japan. In 1998, the Casio
Casio
fx-991W model used a two-tier (multi-line) display and the system was termed as S-V.P.A.M. (Super V.P.A.M.), featuring 5x6-dot LCD
LCD
matrix cells top line and 7-segment LCD
LCD
bottom line that had been used in Casio fx-4500P prog calculators. S-V.P.A.M
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Casio 9850 Series
The CASIO CFX-9850G SERIES is a series of graphing calculators manufactured by Casio
Casio
Computer Co., Ltd . from 1996 to 2008. CONTENTS* 1 fx-9750G * 1.1 Power * 1.2 Display * 1.3 Memory * 1.4 Graphing * 1.5 Lists and tables * 1.6 Communications * 2 fx-9750G PLUS, CFX-9850G, CFX-9950G series * 2.1 Power * 2.2 Display * 2.3 Memory * 2.4 Software Library * 2.5 Financial
Financial
calculations * 3 CFX-9970G * 4 Trivia * 5 References * 6 Manuals * 7 External links FX-9750GPOWERThe back of the device shows a slightly protruding battery case cover, which slides out to reveal the compartment for the four AAA alkaline batteries used for primary power , and a CR2032
CR2032
lithium button cell used for memory backup when primary power is down or being changed. The device consumes power at the rate of 0.06W , and turns itself off automatically after about 6 minutes of time spent without any keypad activity. Battery life for the primary power cells ranges from 300 hours (LR03 battery) to 200 hours (R03 battery) for continuous display of main menu. Backup cells last up to about 2 years each. The calculators weigh about 190 grams including batteries , and measure about 19.7 mm x 83 mm x 176 mm. Features include scientific calculations , including calculus , graphing and programming , statistics and matrix operations
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Casio 9860 Series
The CASIO
CASIO
FX-9860G is a series of graphing calculators manufactured by Casio
Casio
Computer Co., Ltd , successor of the fx-9750G PLUS/CFX-9850 PLUS/CFX-9950 PLUS/CFX-9970 family of calculators. All of them are capable of being programmed by means of sophisticated languages and tools including assembly language, Basic variants, and ports of programming languages such as C, as well as hosting add-ins which are compiled on a computer and then downloaded to the calculator. CONTENTS* 1 fx-9860G, fx-9860G SD * 1.1 Programming * 1.2 Connectivity, and Programme Development * 2 fx-9860GII, fx-9860GII SD * 3 References * 4 External links FX-9860G, FX-9860G SD CASIO
CASIO
fx-9860G Casio
Casio
fx-9860G SD TYPE Programmable Graphing MANUFACTURER Casio
Casio
INTRODUCED 2005 CALCULATOR ENTRY MODE Infix , Mathematical DISPLAY TYPE LCD Dot matrix
Dot matrix
monochrome DISPLAY SIZE 128 x 64 pixels CPU FREQUENCY 29 MHz PROGRAMMING USER MEMORY 64 KiB FIRMWARE MEMORY Flash memory, 1.5 MiB
MiB
(800 KiB for AU version) EXTERNAL MEMORY Up to 2 GB for SD version with an SD memory card INTERFACES CONNECTS TOPC via one of: * USB * serial Ire CASIO
CASIO
manufactured graphing calculators
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Casio ClassPad 300
The CASIO CLASSPAD 300, CLASSPAD 330 and FX-CP400 are stylus based touch-screen graphing calculators . The ClassPad comes with a collection of applications that support self-study, like 3D Graph, Geometry, eActivity, Spreadsheet, etc. A large 160x240 pixel LCD touch screen enables stylus-based operation. The ClassPad resembles Casio's earlier Pocket Viewer line. HP and Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
attempted to release similar pen based calculators (the HP Xpander
HP Xpander
and PET Project (see TI PLT SHH1 ), but both were cancelled before release to the market. The ClassPad 300 allows input of expressions, and displays them as they appear in a textbook. Factorization of expressions, calculation of limit values of functions, and other operations can be performed while viewing the results on a large LCD screen. The ClassPad 300 comes with graphing tools for 3D graphing and drawing of geometric figures. The user interface of the ClassPad 300 uses a pull-down menu format. Solutions, expressions, and other items can be selected with the tap of the stylus. The ClassPad 300 also supports drag and drop, copy and paste, and other pen-based operations. An eActivity application allows the creation of eActivities that can include figures, expressions, and explanations
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Casio FX-502P Series
Compact Cassette via: * FA-1 OTHER POWER SUPPLY 2×"G13" or 2×"LR44" POWER CONSUMPTION 0.0008 W WEIGHT 141 g, 5 oz DIMENSIONS 15.24×7.6×1.2 cm, 6"×3"×½"The FX-501P and FX-502P were programmable calculators , manufactured by Casio
Casio
from 1978/1979. They were the predecessors of the FX-601P and FX-602P . CONTENTS * 1 Arithmetic * 2 Display * 3 Programming * 3.1 Programming example * 4 Interface * 5 References * 6 External links ARITHMETICThe FX-502P series use the algebraic logic as was state of the art at the time. DISPLAYThe FX-501P and FX-502P featured a single line 7-segment liquid crystal display with 10 digits as main display. An additional 3 digits 7-segment display used to display exponents and program steps when entering or debugging programs and 10 status indicators. The display was covered with a yellow filter, supposedly to prevent ultra-violet radiation damage. PROGRAMMINGThe programming model employed was key stroke programming by which each key pressed was recorded and later played back. On record multiple key presses were merged into a single programming step. All operations fitted into one program step. The FX-501P could store 128 steps, with 11 memory registers. The FX-502P had twice that capacity with 256 steps and 22 memory registers. Conditional and unconditional jumps as well as subroutines were supported
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