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Caryophyllales
Caryophyllineae Polygonineae SYNONYMS Centrospermae CARYOPHYLLALES (/ˌkærioʊfiˈleɪliːz/ kair-ee-uu-fil-LAY-leez ) is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti , carnations , amaranths , ice plants , beets , and many carnivorous plants . Many members are succulent , having fleshy stems or leaves . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Circumscription * 2.1 APG III * 2.2 APG II * 2.3 APG * 2.4 Cronquist * 2.5 Earlier circumscriptions * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONThe members of Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
include about 6% of eudicot species . This order is part of the core eudicots . Currently, the Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
contains 33 families, 692 genera and 11,155 species
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Plant Stem
A STEM is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant , the other being the root . The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes: * The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as buds which can grow into branches (with leaves , conifer cones , or inflorescences (flowers)). Adventitious roots may also be produced from the nodes. * The internodes distance one node from another.The term "shoots " is often confused with "stems"; "shoots" generally refers to new fresh plant growth including both stems and other structures like leaves or flowers. In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems . Stems have four main functions which are: * Support for and the elevation of leaves, flowers and fruits
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Leaf
A LEAF is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem . The leaves and stem together form the shoot . Leaves are collectively referred to as FOLIAGE, as in "autumn foliage". Diagram of a simple leaf. * Apex * Midvein (Primary vein) * Secondary vein. * Lamina. * Leaf
Leaf
margin * Petiole * Bud * StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ , borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis . In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll , is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
, palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA
DNA
, morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature )
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Clade
A CLADE (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants , and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life ". The common ancestor may be an individual, a population , a species (extinct or extant ), and so on right up to a kingdom . Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms. Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Taxon
In biology , a TAXON (plural TAXA; back-formation from taxonomy ) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking , especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion. If a taxon is given a formal scientific name , its use is then governed by one of the nomenclature codes specifying which scientific name is correct for a particular grouping
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Suborders
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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DNA Sequences
A NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides within a DNA
DNA
(using GACT) or RNA
RNA
(GACU) molecule. By convention, sequences are usually presented from the 5\' end to the 3\' end . For DNA, the sense strand is used. Because nucleic acids are normally linear (unbranched) polymers , specifying the sequence is equivalent to defining the covalent structure of the entire molecule. For this reason, the nucleic acid sequence is also termed the primary structure . The sequence has capacity to represent information . Biological deoxyribonucleic acid represents the information which directs the functions of a living thing. Nucleic acids also have a secondary structure and tertiary structure . Primary structure
Primary structure
is sometimes mistakenly referred to as primary sequence. Conversely, there is no parallel concept of secondary or tertiary sequence
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Antoine Laurent De Jussieu
ANTOINE LAURENT DE JUSSIEU (French pronunciation: ​ ; 12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist , notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants ; much of his system remains in use today. His classification was based on and extended unpublished work by his uncle, the botanist Bernard de Jussieu . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Selected publications * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 Wikimedia LIFEJussieu was born in Lyon
Lyon
. He went to Paris
Paris
to study medicine , graduating in 1770. He was professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes from 1770 to 1826. His son Adrien-Henri also became a botanist. In his study of flowering plants, Genera plantarum (1789), Jussieu adopted a methodology based on the use of multiple characters to define groups, an idea derived from naturalist Michel Adanson
Michel Adanson

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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Friedrich Von Berchtold
Count
Count
FRIEDRICH CARL EUGEN VSEMIR VON BERCHTOLD, baron von Ungarschitz (Czech : Bedřich Karel Eugen Všemír Berchtold hrabě z Uherčic) (25 October 1781 – 3 April 1876), was a German-speaking Bohemian physician and botanist from Austrian descent. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Selected publications * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Bibliography BIOGRAPHYBerchtold was born in Stráž nad Nežárkou (German : Platz an der Naser) (now District Jindřichův Hradec
Jindřichův Hradec
), in the Austrian Empire. He graduated from medical school in 1804, after which he practiced medicine and devoted much of his time to botany and natural history . He eventually abandoned regular medical practice and travelled throughout Europe, the Middle East
Middle East
and Brazil
Brazil

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Jan Svatopluk Presl
JAN SVATOPLUK PRESL (4 September 1791 – 6 April 1849) was a Bohemian natural scientist. He was the brother of botanist Karel Bořivoj Presl (1794–1852). The Czech Botanical Society commemorated the two brothers by naming its principal publication Preslia (founded in 1914). He is the author of Czech scientific terminology of various branches of science, including the Czech chemical nomenclature . He was the co-author of an important Czech taxonomic work, O Prirozenosti Rostlin
O Prirozenosti Rostlin
. CONTENTS * 1 Selected publications * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links SELECTED PUBLICATIONS * Berchtold, Friedrich von ; Presl, Jan Svatopluk (1820). O Prirozenosti Rostlin. Prague: Krala Wiljma Endersa. * Berchtold, Friedrich von ; Presl, Jan Svatopluk (1820–1835). O Prirozenosti Rostlin aneb rostlinář. Prague: Jos Krause
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