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Caryophyllales
Caryophyllineae Polygonineae SYNONYMS Centrospermae CARYOPHYLLALES (/ˌkærioʊfiˈleɪliːz/ _kair-ee-uu-fil-LAY-leez_ ) is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti , carnations , amaranths , ice plants , beets , and many carnivorous plants . Many members are succulent , having fleshy stems or leaves . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Circumscription * 2.1 APG III * 2.2 APG II * 2.3 APG * 2.4 Cronquist * 2.5 Earlier circumscriptions * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONThe members of Caryophyllales include about 6% of eudicot species . This order is part of the core eudicots . Currently, the Caryophyllales contains 33 families, 692 genera and 11,155 species. The monophyly of the Caryophyllales has been supported by DNA sequences , cytochrome c sequence data and heritable characters such as anther wall development and vessel-elements with simple perforations
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Dianthus Caryophyllus
DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS, CARNATION or CLOVE PINK, is a species of Dianthus
Dianthus
. It is probably native to the Mediterranean region
Mediterranean region
but its exact range is unknown due to extensive cultivation for the last 2,000 years. It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 80 cm tall. The leaves are glaucous greyish green to blue-green, slender, up to 15 cm long. The flowers are produced singly or up to five together in a cyme ; they are 3–5 cm diameter, and sweetly scented; the original natural flower colour is bright pinkish-purple, but cultivars of other colours, including red, white, yellow and green, have been developed. Some fragrance-less carnation cultivars are often used as boutonnieres for men
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales * Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Antoine Laurent De Jussieu
ANTOINE LAURENT DE JUSSIEU (French pronunciation: ​ ; 12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist , notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants ; much of his system remains in use today. His classification was based on and extended unpublished work by his uncle, the botanist Bernard de Jussieu . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Selected publications * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 Wikimedia LIFEJussieu was born in Lyon . He went to Paris to study medicine , graduating in 1770. He was professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes from 1770 to 1826. His son Adrien-Henri also became a botanist. In his study of flowering plants, _Genera plantarum_ (1789), Jussieu adopted a methodology based on the use of multiple characters to define groups, an idea derived from naturalist Michel Adanson
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Friedrich Von Berchtold
Count
Count
FRIEDRICH CARL EUGEN VSEMIR VON BERCHTOLD, baron von Ungarschitz (Czech : Bedřich Karel Eugen Všemír Berchtold hrabě z Uherčic) (25 October 1781 – 3 April 1876), was a German-speaking Bohemian physician and botanist from Austrian descent. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Selected publications * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Bibliography BIOGRAPHYBerchtold was born in Stráž nad Nežárkou (German : Platz an der Naser) (now District Jindřichův Hradec
Jindřichův Hradec
), in the Austrian Empire. He graduated from medical school in 1804, after which he practiced medicine and devoted much of his time to botany and natural history . He eventually abandoned regular medical practice and travelled throughout Europe, the Middle East
Middle East
and Brazil
Brazil

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Jan Svatopluk Presl
JAN SVATOPLUK PRESL (4 September 1791 – 6 April 1849) was a Bohemian natural scientist. He was the brother of botanist Karel Bořivoj Presl (1794–1852). The Czech Botanical Society commemorated the two brothers by naming its principal publication Preslia (founded in 1914). He is the author of Czech scientific terminology of various branches of science, including the Czech chemical nomenclature . He was the co-author of an important Czech taxonomic work, O Prirozenosti Rostlin . CONTENTS * 1 Selected publications * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links SELECTED PUBLICATIONS * Berchtold, Friedrich von ; Presl, Jan Svatopluk (1820). O Prirozenosti Rostlin. Prague: Krala Wiljma Endersa. * Berchtold, Friedrich von ; Presl, Jan Svatopluk (1820–1835). O Prirozenosti Rostlin aneb rostlinář. Prague: Jos Krause
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Suborders
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Caryophyllineae
CARYOPHYLLINEAE is a suborder of flowering plants. CONTENTS* 1 Systematics * 1.1 See also * 2 References * 3 External links SYSTEMATICS Caryophyllales is separated into 2 sub-orders: CARYOPHYLLINEAE and Polygonineae. Caryophyllineae
Caryophyllineae
contains 21 families and 8,600 species and major families include Aizoaceae
Aizoaceae
, Basellaceae , Caryophyllaceae
Caryophyllaceae
, Didiereaceae
Didiereaceae
, Phytolaccaceae (including Petiveriaceae ), Nyctaginaceae , Molluginaceae
Molluginaceae
, Amaranthaceae (sometimes including Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodiaceae
), Cactaceae
Cactaceae
, and Portulacaceae
Portulacaceae

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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Centrospermae
CENTROSPERMAE is a descriptive botanical name , published in 1878 by Eichler , meaning "with the seed in the center", referring to the free (central) placentation . It was used in the Engler system
Engler system
and the Wettstein system ) for an order of flowering plants . In its circumscription , Centrospermae corresponds fairly closely to the order Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
in the system of Cronquist . In the APG III system , and in later versions of the Kubitzki system , Caryophyllales is defined to include much more than Centrospermae. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that Centrospermae is monophyletic . It is equivalent to a clade known as the core Caryophyllales, whenever the latter is defined to exclude the families Rhabdodendraceae , Simmondsiaceae , Physenaceae and Asteropeiaceae
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Cactus
See also Classification of the Cactaceae
Classification of the Cactaceae
SYNONYMS * Opuntiaceae Desv. * Leuchtenbergiaceae Salm-Dyck ex Pfeiff. Cultivated cacti in the Singapore Botanic Gardens Many species of cactus have long, sharp spines , like this Opuntia
Opuntia
. A CACTUS (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family CACTACEAE, a family comprising about 127 genera with some 1750 known species of the order Caryophyllales . The word "cactus" derives, through Latin, from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
κάκτος, kaktos, a name originally used by Theophrastus
Theophrastus
for a spiny plant whose identity is not certain. Cacti occur in a wide range of shapes and sizes
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