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Carrack
A carrack was a three- or four-masted ocean-going sailing ship that was developed in the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe. Developed from the single-masted cog, the carrack was first used for European trade from the Mediterranean to the Baltic and quickly found use with the newly found wealth and status of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. In its most advanced forms, it was used by the Portuguese for trade along the African coast and finally with Asia and America from the 15th century before evolving into the galleon of the 16th and 17th centuries. In its most developed form, the carrack was a carvel-built ocean-going ship: large enough to be stable in heavy seas, and for a large cargo and the provisions needed for very long voyages. The later carracks were square-rigged on the foremast and mainmast and lateen-rigged on the mizzenmast. They had a high rounded stern with large aftcastle, forecastle and bowsprit at the stem
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Ming Dynasty
The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(/mɪŋ/)[2] was the ruling dynasty of China
China
– then known as the Great Ming Empire
Empire
– for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer, John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history",[3] was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese
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Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
(/ɒksɪˈrɪŋkəs/; Greek: Ὀξύρρυγχος Oxýrrhynkhos; "sharp-nosed"; ancient Egyptian Pr-Medjed; Coptic Pemdje; modern Egyptian Arabic El Bahnasa) is a city in Middle Egypt, located about 160 km south-southwest of Cairo, in the governorate of Al Minya. It is also an archaeological site, considered one of the most important ever discovered. For the past century, the area around Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
has been continually excavated, yielding an enormous collection of papyrus texts dating from the time of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods of Egyptian history. Among the texts discovered at Oxyrhynchus
Oxyrhynchus
are plays of Menander, fragments from the Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas, and fragments from Euclid's Elements. They also include a few vellum manuscripts, and more recent Arabic manuscripts on paper (for example, the medieval P. Oxy
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Late Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or Late Medieval
Medieval
Period was the period of European history
European history
lasting from 1250-1500 AD. The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
and preceded the onset of the early modern era (and, in much of Europe, the Renaissance).[1] Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe
Europe
came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine
Famine
of 1315–1317 and the Black Death, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities.[2] Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare
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Rudder
A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water). On an aircraft the rudder is used primarily to counter adverse yaw and p-factor and is not the primary control used to turn the airplane. A rudder operates by redirecting the fluid past the hull (watercraft) or fuselage, thus imparting a turning or yawing motion to the craft. In basic form, a rudder is a flat plane or sheet of material attached with hinges to the craft's stern, tail, or after end. Often rudders are shaped so as to minimize hydrodynamic or aerodynamic drag. On simple watercraft, a tiller—essentially, a stick or pole acting as a lever arm—may be attached to the top of the rudder to allow it to be turned by a helmsman. In larger vessels, cables, pushrods, or hydraulics may be used to link rudders to steering wheels
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John II Of Portugal
John II (Portuguese: João II,[1] Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃]; 3 March 1455 – 25 October 1495), the Perfect Prince (Portuguese: o Príncipe Perfeito), was the king of Portugal and the Algarves in 1477/1481–1495. He is known for re-establishing the power of the Portuguese throne, reinvigorating the Portuguese economy, and renewing his country's exploration of Africa
Africa
and the Orient.Contents1 Early life 2 Consolidation of power 3 Economy 4 Exploration 5 Conflict with Castile 6 Legacy 7 In popular culture 8 Marriage and descendants 9 Ancestry 10 See also 11 Notes 12 External links 13 Referen
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Lighter (barge)
A lighter is a type of flat-bottomed barge used to transfer goods and passengers to and from moored ships. Lighters were traditionally unpowered and were moved and steered using long oars called "sweeps" and the motive power of water currents. They were operated by highly skilled workers called lightermen and were a characteristic sight in London's docks until about the 1960s, when technological changes made this form of lightering largely redundant. Unpowered lighters continue to be moved by powered tugs, however, and lighters may also now themselves be powered. The term is also used in the Lighter Aboard Ship (LASH) system. The name itself is of uncertain origin, but is believed to possibly derive from an old Dutch or German word, lichten (to lighten or unload). In Dutch, the word lichter is still used for smaller ships that take over goods from larger ships. The lighter barge gave rise to the "lighter tug", a small, maneuverable type of harbour tug
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Cyprus
Cyprus,[f] officially the Republic of Cyprus,[g] is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean. Cyprus
Cyprus
is located south of Turkey, west of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, and southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic
Neolithic
village of Khirokitia, and Cyprus
Cyprus
is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world.[9] Cyprus
Cyprus
was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC
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Corfu
Corfu
Corfu
or Kerkyra (/kɔːrˈfuː, -fjuː/; Greek: Κέρκυρα, translit. Kérkyra, [ˈcercira]; Ancient Greek: Κόρκυρα, translit. Kórkyra; Latin: Corcyra; Italian: Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea. It is the second largest of the Ionian Islands,[3] and, including its small satellite islands, forms the northwesternmost part of Greece.[4] The island is part of the Corfu regional unit, and is administered as a single municipality, which also includes the smaller islands of Ereikoussa, Mathraki
Mathraki
and Othonoi. The municipality has an area of 610,9 km2, the island proper 592,8 km2.[5] The principal city of the island and seat of the municipality (pop. 32,095) is also named Corfu.[6] Corfu
Corfu
is home to the Ionian University. The island is bound up with the history of Greece
Greece
from the beginnings of Greek mythology
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History Of Ptolemaic Egypt
The Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
(/ˌtɒləˈmeɪ.ɪk/; Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía)[3] was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
kingdom based in Egypt. It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty, which started with Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. The Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
Soter, who declared himself Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt
Egypt
and created a powerful Hellenistic dynasty that ruled an area stretching from southern Syria
Syria
to Cyrene and south to Nubia
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Pharaoh
(/ˈfeɪ.roʊ/, /fɛr.oʊ/[1][2] or /fær.oʊ/;[2] Coptic: ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 30 BCE,[3] although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Nesu Bety, and the Nebty name. The Golden Horus
Horus
and Nomen and prenomen titles were later added. In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator
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Phoenician Languages
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language. It is a part of the Canaanite subgroup of the Northwest Semitic languages. Other members of the family are Hebrew, Ammonite, Moabite and Edomite
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Akkadian Language
Akkadian
Akkadian
(/əˈkeɪdiən/ akkadû, 𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑 ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: 𒌵𒆠 URIKI )[2][3] is an extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(Akkad, Assyria, Isin, Larsa and Babylonia) from the 30th century BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Eastern Aramaic among Mesopotamians between the 8th century BC and its final extinction by the 1st to 3rd centuries AD. It is the earliest attested Semitic language,[4] and used the cuneiform writing system, which was originally used to write the unrelated, and also extinct, Sumerian (which is a language isolate). Akkadian
Akkadian
was named after the city of Akkad, a major centre of Mesopotamian civilization during the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
(c
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