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Carolingian Empire
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks since 751 and as kings of the Lombards of Italy from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire. After a civil war (840–43) following the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, the empire was divided into autonomous kingdoms, with one king still recognised as emperor, but with little authority outside his own kingdom. The unity of the empire and the hereditary right of the Carolingians continued to be acknowledged. In 884, Charles the Fat reunited all the kingdoms for the last time, but he died in 888 and the empire immediately split up
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Louis The German
Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) "the German" (c. 804-876), also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia
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Lombardy
Lombardy (/ˈlɒmbərdi/ LOM-bər-dee; Italian: Lombardia [lombarˈdiːa]; Lombard: Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard) [lumbarˈdiːa], (Eastern Lombard) [lombarˈdeːa]) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres (9,206 sq mi)
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Denmark
Denmark (/ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ (About this sound listen); Danish: Danmark, pronounced [ˈdanmɑɡ] (About this sound listen)), officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and a sovereign state. The southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, it is south-west of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate
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Slavs
Slavs are Indo-European peoples who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe all the way north and eastwards to Northeast Europe, Northern Asia (Siberia), and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan), as well as historically in Western Europe (particularly in East Germany) and Western Asia (including Anatolia). From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit the majority of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe
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Pannonian Avars
The Pannonian Avars (/ˈævɑːrz/; also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin

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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state until death or abdication. The legitimation and governing power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to restricted (constitutional monarchy), to fully autocratic (absolute monarchy), combining executive, legislative and judicial power. In most cases, the succession of monarchies is hereditary, but there are also elective and self-proclaimed monarchies, often building dynastic periods. Aristocrats, though not inherent to monarchies, often serve as the pool of persons to draw the monarch from and fill the constituting institutions (e.g. diet and court), giving many monarchies oligarchic elements. A monarchy can be a polity through unity, personal union, vassalage or federation
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Latin Language
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language in Italy, and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire. Latin has contributed many words to the English language. In particular, Latin (and Ancient Greek) roots are used in English descriptions of theology, the sciences, medicine, and law. By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin
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Pyrenees
The Pyrenees (/ˈpɪrɪnz/; Spanish: Pirineos [piɾiˈneos], French: Pyrénées [piʁene], Aragonese: Pirineus, Catalan: Pirineus [piɾiˈnɛus], Occitan: Pirenèus, Basque: Pirinioak [piˈɾinioˌak]) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay (Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean Sea (Cap de Creus). For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain and France, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between
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Saracen
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages. The term's meaning evolved during its history. In the early centuries of the Common Era, Greek and Latin writings used this term to refer to the people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province of Arabia Petraea, and who were specifically distinguished from others as a people known as Arabs. In Europe during the Early Middle Ages, the term came to be associated with tribes of Arabia as well. By the 12th century, "Saracen" had become synonymous with "Muslim" in Medieval Latin literature
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Stirrup
A stirrup is a light frame or ring that holds the foot of a rider, attached to the saddle by a strap, often called a stirrup leather. Stirrups are usually paired and are used to aid in mounting and as a support while using a riding animal (usually a horse or other equine, such as a mule). They greatly increase the rider's ability to stay in the saddle and control the mount, increasing the animal's usefulness to humans in areas such as communication, transportation and warfare. In antiquity, the earliest foot supports consisted of riders placing their feet under a girth or using a simple toe loop. Later, a single stirrup was used as a mounting aid, and paired stirrups appeared after the invention of the treed saddle
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Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon FRS (/ˈɡɪbən/; 8 May 1737 – 16 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament
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Pope Zachary
Pope Zachary (Latin: Zacharias; 679 – 15 March 752) reigned from 3 December or 5 December 741 to his death in 752. A Greek from Santa Severina, Calabria, he was the last pope of the Byzantine Papacy. Most probably he was a deacon of the Roman Church and as such signed the decrees of the Roman council of 732, and succeeded Gregory III on 5 December 741. Zachary built the original church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, forbade the traffic of slaves in Rome, and negotiated peace with the Lombards. In response to an inquiry forwarded by Pepin the Short, Zachary rendered the opinion that it was better that he should be king who had the royal power than he who had not. Shortly thereafter, the Frankish nobles decided to abandon the Merovingian Childeric III in favor of Pepin. Zachary is also the pope. Historians such as J.P
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Rhine
The Rhine (Latin: Rhenus, Romansh: Rein, German: Rhein, French: le Rhin, Italian: Reno, Spanish: Rin, Dutch: Rijn, Alemannic German: Rhi(n) including Alsatian) is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in a mostly northerly direction through Germany and the Netherlands, emptying into the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea. The largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, Germany, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people
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Battle Of The Teutoburg Forest
Gallic Wars Early Imperial campaigns in Germania