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Carnival
CARNIVAL (see other spellings and names ) is a Western Christian festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent . The main events typically occur during February or early March, during the period historically known as Shrovetide
Shrovetide
(or Pre-Lent). Carnival typically involves a public celebration and/or parade combining some elements of a circus , masks, and a public street party . People wear masks and costumes during many such celebrations, allowing them to lose their everyday individuality and experience a heightened sense of social unity. Excessive consumption of alcohol, meat, and other foods proscribed during Lent is extremely common
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Great Lent
GREAT LENT, or the GREAT FAST, (Greek : Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Western Rite Orthodoxy ) and the Eastern Catholic Churches , which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter). In many ways Great Lent is similar to Lent in Western Christianity . There are some differences in the timing of Lent (besides calculating the date of Easter) and how it is practiced, both liturgically in the public worship of the church and individually
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Isis
الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎ ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām Participant in the Iraq War
Iraq War
(2003–2011), Iraqi insurgency , Syrian Civil War , Iraqi Civil War , Second Libyan Civil War , Boko Haram insurgency , War in North-West Pakistan , War in Afghanistan , Yemeni Civil War , and other conflicts ------------------------- Primary target of Operation Inherent Resolve
Operation Inherent Resolve
and of the military intervention against ISIL : in Syria
Syria
, Iraq
Iraq
, Libya , and Nigeria
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Eastern Orthodox
The EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, also known as the ORTHODOX CHURCH, or officially as the ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the second-largest Christian church and one of the oldest extant religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus
Jesus
Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles . The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church is a communion of autocephalous churches , each typically governed by a Holy Synod
Holy Synod
. It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination , and has no central governing structure analogous to the Papacy in the Roman Catholic Church
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Methodists
METHODISM or the METHODIST MOVEMENT is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity
Christianity
which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley
John Wesley
. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley
Charles Wesley
were also significant leaders in the movement. It originated as a revival within the 18th century Church of England
Church of England
and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire
British Empire
, the United States, and beyond because of vigorous missionary work , today claiming approximately 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley\'s theology focused on sanctification and the effect of faith on the character of a Christian
Christian

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Lutheran
LUTHERANISM is a major branch of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity
Christianity
which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483–1546), a German friar , ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. Beginning with the Ninety-Five Theses , first published in 1517, Luther's writings were disseminated internationally, spreading the early ideas of the Reformation
Reformation
beyond the influence and control of the Roman Curia and the Holy Roman Emperor
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Anthropological
ANTHROPOLOGY is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies . Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans
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Dutch Language
DUTCH ( Nederlands (help ·info )) is a West Germanic language that is spoken by around 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and about sixty percent of Belgium
Belgium
—and by another 5 million as a second language. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language , after English and German. Outside of the Low Countries , it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname , and also holds official status in Aruba , Curaçao
Curaçao
and Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands

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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Folk Etymology
FOLK ETYMOLOGY or REANALYSIS – sometimes called PSEUDO-ETYMOLOGY, POPULAR ETYMOLOGY, or ANALOGICAL REFORMATION – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one. The form or the meaning of an archaic, foreign, or otherwise unfamiliar word is reanalyzed as resembling more familiar words or morphemes . Rebracketing is a form of folk etymology in which a word is broken down or "bracketed" into a new set of supposed elements. Back-formation , creating a new word by removing or changing parts of an existing word, is often based on folk etymology. The term folk etymology is a loan translation from German VOLKSETYMOLOGIE, coined by Ernst Förstemann in 1852. Folk etymology is a productive process in historical linguistics and language change. Reanalysis of a word's history or original form can affect its spelling, pronunciation, or meaning
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Late Latin
LATE LATIN is the scholarly name for the written Latin
Latin
of Late Antiquity . The English dictionary definition of Late Latin
Latin
dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, extending in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
of southwestern Europe to the 7th century. This somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin
Latin
and Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
. There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin
Latin
should end or exactly when Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
should begin. However, Late Latin
Latin
is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin
Latin
is not identical with Vulgar Latin
Latin

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Philology
PHILOLOGY is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism , history , and linguistics . It is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. In older usage, especially British, PHILOLOGY is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics. Classical philology
Classical philology
studies classical languages
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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino , Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
). It used to have official status in Albania
Albania
, Malta
Malta
and Monaco
Monaco
, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Portuguese Language
PORTUGUESE (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal
Portugal
, Brazil
Brazil
, Cape Verde , Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
, Mozambique
Mozambique
,