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Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/;[1][2] 23 May[note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné[3] (Swedish pronunciation: [kɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː] ( listen)), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy".[4] Many of his writings were in Latin
Latin
and his name is rendered in Latin
Latin
as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730
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Yeoman
A yeoman /ˈjoʊmən/ was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England. In early recorded uses, a yeoman was an attendant in a noble household; hence titles such as " Yeoman
Yeoman
of the Chamber", " Yeoman
Yeoman
of the Crown", " Yeoman
Yeoman
Usher", "King's Yeoman", Yeomen Warders, Yeomen of the Guard. The later sense of yeoman as "a commoner who cultivates his own land" is recorded from the 15th century; in military context, yeoman was the rank of the third order of "fighting men", below knights and squires, but above knaves. A specialized meaning in naval terminology, "petty officer in charge of supplies", arose in the 1660s.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 United States3.1 U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
and U.S. Coast Guard4 Other references4.1 In popular culture 4.2 Other5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 External linksEtymology[edit] The term is first recorded c
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Lutheran
Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is a major branch of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity
Christianity
which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(/ruːˈsoʊ/;[1] French: [ʒɑ̃ʒak ʁuso]; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century, mainly active in France. His political philosophy influenced the Enlightenment across Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the overall development of modern political and educational thought. Rousseau's novel Emile, or On Education
Education
is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship
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Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
(/ˈɡɜːrtə/;[1][2][3] German: [ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfɡaŋ fɔn ˈɡøːtə] ( listen); 28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman. His works include four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. In addition, there are numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him extant. A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Carl August in 1782 after taking up residence there in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther
Werther
(1774). He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement
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William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(/ˈʃeɪkspɪər/; 26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616)[a] was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.[2][3][4] He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon".[5][b] His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 39 plays,[c] 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.[7] Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith
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August Strindberg
Johan August Strindberg
August Strindberg
(/ˈstrɪndbɜːrɡ, ˈstrɪnbɜːrɡ/;[1] Swedish: [²strindbærj] ( listen); 22 January 1849 – 14 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter.[2][3][4] A prolific writer who often drew directly on his personal experience, Strindberg's career spanned four decades, during which time he wrote over sixty plays and more than thirty works of fiction, autobiography, history, cultural analysis, and politics.[5] A bold experimenter and iconoclast throughout, he explored a wide range of dramatic methods and purposes, from naturalistic tragedy, mon
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Beekeeping
Beekeeping
Beekeeping
(or apiculture) is the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans. A beekeeper (or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produces (including beeswax, propolis, flower pollen, bee pollen, and royal jelly), to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or "bee yard." Depictions of humans collecting honey from wild bees date to 10,000 years ago.[2] Beekeeping
Beekeeping
in pottery vessels began about 9,000 years ago in North Africa.[3] Domestication is shown in Egyptian art from around 4,500 years ago.[4] Simple hives and smoke were used and honey was stored in jars, some of which were found in the tombs of pharaohs such as Tutankhamun
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Minister (Christianity)
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community
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Thesis
A thesis or dissertation[1] is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.[2] In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true.[3] The term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations.[4] The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, and the required minimum study period may thus vary significantly in duration. The word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree
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Curate
A curate (/ˈkjuːrɪt/ KEW-rit) is a person who is invested with the care or cure (cura) of souls of a parish. In this sense, "curate" correctly means a parish priest; but in English-speaking countries the term curate is commonly used to describe clergy who are assistants to the parish priest
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Rector (ecclesiastical)
A rector is, in an ecclesiastical sense, a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations,[1][2] and in Islam.[3] In contrast, a vicar is also a cleric but functions as an assistant and representative of an administrative leader.[4][5]Contents1 Historical usage1.1 Roman Catholic Church 1.2 Anglican churches 1.3 Protestant churches 1.4 Islam2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesHistorical usage[edit] In ancient times bishops, as rulers of cities and provinces, especially in the Papal States, were called rectors, as were administrators of the patrimony of the Church (e.g
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Rectory
A clergy house or rectory is the residence, or former residence, of one or more priests or ministers of religion.Contents1 Function 2 Nomenclature 3 Image gallery 4 See also 5 ReferencesFunction[edit] Clergy houses are typically owned and maintained by a church, as a benefit to its clergy. The practice exists in many denominations because of the tendency of clergy to be transferred from one church to another at relatively frequent intervals. Catholic clergy houses in particular may be lived in by several priests from a parish. Clergy houses frequently serve as the administrative office of the local parish as well as a residence; they are normally located next to, or at least close to, the church their occupant serves. Partly because of the general conservationism of churches, many clergy houses are of historic interest or even importance
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Patronymic
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic),[1][2] or an even earlier male ancestor. A component of a name based on the name of one's mother or a female ancestor is a matronymic. Each is a means of conveying lineage. In such instances, a person is usually referred to by their given name, rather than their patronymic. Patronymics are still in use, including mandatory use, in many countries worldwide, although their use has largely been replaced by or transformed into patronymic surnames
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Æ
Æ
Æ
(minuscule: æ) is a grapheme named æsc or ash, formed from the letters a and e, originally a ligature representing the Latin diphthong ae. It has been promoted to the full status of a letter in the alphabets of some languages, including Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese. As a letter of the Old English
Old English
Latin
Latin
alphabet, it was called æsc ("ash tree")[1] after the Anglo-Saxon futhorc rune
( ) which it transliterated; its traditional name in English is still ash /æʃ/. It was also used in Old Swedish
Old Swedish
before being changed to ä. In recent times, it is also used to represent a long A sound.[citation needed] Variants include Ǣ ǣ Ǽ
Ǽ
ǽ æ̀.This article contains special characters
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