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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin
Latin
, and his name is rendered in Latin
Latin
as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland
Småland
, in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands
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William Shakespeare
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (/ˈʃeɪkspɪər/ ; 26 April 1564 (baptised ) – 23 April 1616) was an English poet , playwright , and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language
English language
and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet , and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including collaborations , consist of approximately 38 plays , 154 sonnets , two long narrative poems , and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare
Shakespeare
was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon
Stratford-upon-Avon
, Warwickshire
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Alma Mater
ALMA MATER ( Latin
Latin
: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college . In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, or a song or hymn associated with a school . The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its modern usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses , especially Ceres or Cybele , and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
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Æ
Æ
Æ
(minuscule : æ) is a grapheme named æSC or ASH, formed from the letters a and e, originally a ligature representing the Latin diphthong ae. It has been promoted to the full status of a letter in the alphabets of some languages, including Danish , Norwegian , Icelandic , and Faroese . As a letter of the Old English Latin alphabet , it was called æsc ("ash tree") after the Anglo-Saxon futhorc rune
( ) which it transliterated ; its traditional name in English is still ASH /æʃ/ . It was also used in Old Swedish before being changed to ä . Variants include Ǣ ǣ Ǽ ǽ æ̀. THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS SPECIAL CHARACTERS . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols . Æ
Æ
alone and in context Vanuatu's domestic airline operated under the name Air Melanesiæ in the 1970s
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Physician
A PHYSICIAN, MEDICAL PRACTITIONER, MEDICAL DOCTOR, or simply DOCTOR is a professional who practises medicine , which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis , and treatment of disease , injury , and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients and methods of treatment—known as specialities —or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice . Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines (such as anatomy and physiology ) underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine. Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world
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Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE (/ˈɡɜːrtə/ ; German: ( listen ); 28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman . His works include epic and lyric poetry ; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism ; treatises on botany , anatomy , and colour; and four novels. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him exist. A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe- Weimar
Weimar
, Carl August in 1782 after taking up residence there in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther
Werther
. He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement
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Thesis
A THESIS or DISSERTATION is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor\'s or master\'s course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true. The term GRADUATE THESIS is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, and the required minimum study period may thus vary significantly in duration. The word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is also used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Småland
SMåLAND (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )) is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden
Sweden
. Småland
Småland
borders Blekinge
Blekinge
, Scania
Scania
(Swedish: Skåne), Halland
Halland
, Västergötland , Östergötland and the island Öland
Öland
in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. The name Småland
Småland
literally means Small Lands. The Latinized form Smolandia has been used in other languages. The highest point in Småland
Småland
is Tomtabacken
Tomtabacken
, at 377 metres (1,237 ft)
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Patronymic
A PATRONYM, or PATRONYMIC, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an AVONYMIC), or an even earlier male ancestor. A component of a name based on the name of one's mother or a female ancestor is a matronymic . Each is a means of conveying lineage . In such instances, a person is usually referred to by their given name , rather than their patronymic. Patronymics are still in use, including mandatory use, in many countries worldwide, although their use has largely been replaced by or transformed into patronymic surnames . Examples of such transformations include common English surnames such as Johnson
Johnson
(son of John)
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau
JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU (/ruːˈsoʊ/ ; French: ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Francophone
Francophone
Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century. His political philosophy influenced the Enlightenment in France
France
and across Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the overall development of modern political and educational thought. Rousseau's novel Emile, or On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise was of importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction
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August Strindberg
JOHAN AUGUST STRINDBERG (/ˈstrɪndbɜːrɡ, ˈstrɪnbɜːrɡ/ ; Swedish: ( listen ); 22 January 1849 – 14 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter. A prolific writer who often drew directly on his personal experience, Strindberg's career spanned four decades, during which time he wrote over sixty plays and more than thirty works of fiction, autobiography, history, cultural analysis, and politics. A bold experimenter and iconoclast throughout, he explored a wide range of dramatic methods and purposes, from naturalistic tragedy , monodrama , and history plays, to his anticipations of expressionist and surrealist dramatic techniques. From his earliest work, Strindberg developed innovative forms of dramatic action, language, and visual composition. He is considered the "father" of modern Swedish literature and his The Red Room (1879) has frequently been described as the first modern Swedish novel
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Typographic Ligature
In writing and typography , a LIGATURE occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph . An example is the character æ as used in English, in which the letters a and e are joined. The common ampersand ("> Doubles (Geminated consonants ) during the Roman Republic era were written as a sicilicus . During the medieval era several conventions existed (mostly diacritic marks ). However, in Nordic texts a particular type of ligature appeared for ll and tt, referred to as "broken l" and "broken t" Medieval scribes who wrote in Latin
Latin
increased their writing speed by combining characters and by introducing notational abbreviations . Others conjoined letters for aesthetic purposes. For example, in blackletter , letters with right-facing bowls (B, O, and P) and those with left-facing bowls (C, E, O, D, G and Q) were written with the facing edges of the bowls superimposed
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Minister (Christianity)
In Christianity
Christianity
, a MINISTER is a person authorized by a church , or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings , baptisms or funerals ; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community. The term is taken from Latin
Latin
minister ("servant", "attendant"), which itself was derived from minus ("less"). In Catholic
Catholic
churches, the concept of a priesthood is emphasised. In Protestant
Protestant
churches, the title usually refers to a member of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such a person may also be called a presbyter, pastor, preacher, bishop, chaplain or elder
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Curate
A CURATE (/ˈkjuːrᵻt/ KEW-rət ) is a person who is invested with the care or cure (cura) of souls of a parish . In this sense "curate" correctly means a parish priest ; but in English-speaking countries the term curate is commonly used to describe clergy who are assistants to the parish priest. The duties or office of a curate are called a CURACY. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and other terms * 2 Roman Catholicism * 3 Anglican Communion * 4 History * 5 Minor canons * 6 See also * 7 Notes and references * 8 Further reading ETYMOLOGY AND OTHER TERMSThe term is derived from the Latin
Latin
curatus (compare Curator