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Carex
CAREX is a vast genus of almost 2,000 species of grassy plants in the family Cyperaceae , commonly known as sedges (or seg, in older books). Other members of the Cyperaceae family are also called sedges, however those of genus Carex
Carex
may be called "true" sedges, and it is the most species-rich genus in the family. The study of Carex
Carex
is known as CARICOLOGY. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Ecology and distribution * 3 Taxonomy and cytogenetics * 4 Uses * 5 References * 6 External links DESCRIPTIONAll species of Carex
Carex
are perennial , although some species, such as C. bebbii and C. viridula can fruit in their first year of growth, and may not survive longer. They typically have rhizomes , stolons or short rootstocks , but some species grow in tufts (caespitose ). The culm – the flower-bearing stalk – is unbranched and usually erect. It is usually distinctly triangular in section. The leaves of Carex
Carex
comprise a blade, which extends away from the stalk, and a sheath, which encloses part of the stalk. The blade is normally long and flat, but may be folded, inrolled, channelled or absent. The leaves have parallel veins and a distinct midrib. Where the blade meets the culm there is a structure called the ligule
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Plantae
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Angiosperms
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek composite word (_angeion_, "case" or "casing", and _sperma_, "seed") meaning "enclosed seeds", after the enclosed condition of the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , during the range 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
, became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya
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Monocots
An economically important monocot SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION _ Kingdom: Plantae Clade_: Angiosperms
Angiosperms
_Clade_: MONOCOTS TYPE GENUS _ Lilium _ L. ORDERS * alismatid monocots * Acorales * Alismatales * lilioid monocots * Asparagales * Dioscoreales * Liliales * Pandanales * Petrosaviales * commelinid monocots * Arecales * Commelinales * Poales * Zingiberales SYNONYMS * Alternifoliae Bessey * Endogenae DC. * Lilianae Takht. * Liliatae Cronquist , Takht. & W.Zimm. * Liliidae Takht. * Liliopsida Batsch * Monocotyleae Eichler * Monocotyledoneae E.Morren ex Mez * MononocotyledonesMONOCOTYLEDONS (/ˌmɒnəˌkɒtəˈliːdən, -ˌkɒtˈliː-/ ), commonly referred to as MONOCOTS, (LILIANAE _sensu _ Chase ">_ Allium crenulatum _ ( Asparagales ), an onion, with typical monocot perianth and parallel leaf venation Onion slice: Parallel veins in cross section GENERALThe monocots or monocotyledons have, as the name implies, a single (mono-) cotyledon , or embryonic leaf, in their seeds
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Commelinids
In plant taxonomy, COMMELINIDS (originally COMMELINOIDS ) (plural, not capitalised) is a name used by the APG IV system for a clade within the monocots , which in its turn is a clade within the angiosperms . The commelinids are the only clade that the APG has informally named within the monocots. The remaining monocots are a paraphyletic unit. Also known as the COMMELINID MONOCOTS it forms one of three groupings within the monocots, and the final branch, the other two groups being the alismatid monocots and the lilioid monocots . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Subdivision * 3 References * 4 Bibliography * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONMembers of the commelinid clade have cell walls containing UV -fluorescent ferulic acid . TAXONOMYThe commelinids were first recognized as a formal group in 1967 by Armen Takhtajan , who named them the Commelinidae and assigned them to a subclass of the monocots. However, by the release of his 1980 system of classification, he had merged this subclass into a larger one no longer considered to be a clade. The commelinids constitute a well-supported clade within the monocots, and this clade has been recognized in all four APG classification systems
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Poales
See text The POALES are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons , and includes families of plants such as the grasses , bromeliads , and sedges . Sixteen plant families are currently recognized by botanists to be part of Poales. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Evolution and phylogeny * 2.2 Diversity * 3 Uses * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION _ Billbergia pyramidalis _ of family Bromeliaceae The flowers are typically small, enclosed by bracts, and arranged in inflorescences (except in the genus _ Mayaca _, with solitary terminal flowers). The flowers of many species are wind pollinated; the seeds usually contain starch . TAXONOMYThe APG III system (2009) accepts the order within a monocot clade called commelinids , and accepts the following 16 families: * Anarthriaceae * Bromeliaceae * Centrolepidaceae * Cyperaceae * Ecdeiocoleaceae * Eriocaulaceae * Flagellariaceae * Joinvilleaceae * Juncaceae * Mayacaceae * Poaceae * Rapateaceae * Restionaceae * Thurniaceae * Typhaceae * Xyridaceae The earlier APG system (1998) adopted the same placement of the order, although it used the spelling "commelinoids"
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Cyperaceae
About 109 (not all listed here) The CYPERACEAE are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as SEDGES, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes . The family is large, with some 5,500 known species described in about 90 genera , the largest being the _ Carex _ genus of "true sedges" with over 2,000 species. These species are widely distributed, with the centers of diversity for the group occurring in tropical Asia and tropical South America . While sedges may be found growing in almost all environments, many are associated with wetlands , or with poor soils. Ecological communities dominated by sedges are known as sedgelands. Features distinguishing members of the sedge family from grasses or rushes are stems with triangular cross-sections (with occasional exceptions) and leaves that are spirally arranged in three ranks (grasses have alternate leaves forming two ranks). Some well-known sedges include the water chestnut (_ Eleocharis dulcis _) and the papyrus sedge (_ Cyperus papyrus _), from which the Ancient Egyptian writing material was made. This family also includes cotton-grass (_ Eriophorum _), spike-rush (_ Eleocharis _), sawgrass (_ Cladium _), nutsedge or nutgrass (_ Cyperus rotundus _, a common lawn weed), and white star sedge (_ Rhynchospora colorata _)
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature , a TYPE SPECIES (_species typica_) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus . In botanical nomenclature , these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature , but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology , a type species is assigned for each genus. Every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not currently recognized as valid , is theoretically associated with a type species. In practice, however, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type. CONTENTS * 1 Use in zoology * 2 Citing * 3 See also * 4 References USE IN ZOOLOGY See also: Types in zoology A type species is both a concept and a practical system that is used in the classification and nomenclature (naming) of animals
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Carex Hirta
CAREX HIRTA, the HAIRY SEDGE, is a species of sedge found across Europe
Europe
. It has characteristic hairy leaves and inflorescences , and is the type species of the genus Carex . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Distribution * 3 Nomenclature * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION Flowers of Carex hirta Terminal male spike Two lateral female spikes Carex hirta grows 15–70 centimetres (6–28 in) tall, with leaves 10–50 cm (4–20 in) long and 2–5 mm (0.08–0.20 in) (occasionally up to 8 mm or 0.3 in) wide. The stems are trigonous (roughly triangular in cross-section), but with convex, rounded faces. The leaves, leaf sheaths and ligules are all hairy, although plants growing in wetter positions may be less hairy; these have sometimes been separated as C. hirta var. sublaevis by Jens Wilken Hornemann , but this may not be a worthwhile taxon. The culms bear 2–3 lateral female spikes , each 10–45 mm (0.4–1.8 in) long, and on half-ensheathed peduncles up to twice the length of the spike. There are 2–3 male spikes at the end of the culm, each 10–30 mm (0.4–1.2 in) long. The hairy utricles , male glumes and leaves make it hard to confuse Carex hirta with any other Carex species
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Biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY, a portmanteau of "biological diversity," generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth
Earth
. According to the United Nations Environment Programme , biodiversity typically measures variation at the genetic , the species , and the ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator , which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity . Biodiversity
Biodiversity
is not distributed evenly on Earth
Earth
, and is richest in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 per cent of earth's surface, and contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity tends to be highest along coasts in the Western Pacific , where sea surface temperature is highest and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity . Biodiversity
Biodiversity
generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future. Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions
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List Of Carex Species
The genus Carex (sedges) is one of the largest genera of flowering plants , containing around 1800 species, according to a 2004 estimate. All the species (including hybrid species) accepted by The Plant List are given below: SPECIES Contents : * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z A * Carex × abitibiana Lepage * Carex aboriginum M.E.Jones * Carex × abortiva Holmb. * Carex abrupta Mack. * Carex abscondita Mack. * Carex
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage ). * reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and * distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA , morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature ). For example, _ Boa constrictor _ is one of four species of the _Boa _ genus. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being . In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also