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Cardinal Direction
The four CARDINAL DIRECTIONS or CARDINAL POINTS are the directions north , east , south , and west , commonly denoted by their initials, N, E, S, W. East
East
and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east. Points between the cardinal directions form the points of the compass . The INTERMEDIATE (INTERCARDINAL or ORDINAL) DIRECTIONS are northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW). The intermediate direction of every set of intercardinal and cardinal direction is called a secondary-intercardinal direction, the eight shortest points in the compass rose that is shown to the right—i.e., NNE, ENE, ESE, etc
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Long Exposure Photography
LONG-EXPOSURE, TIME-EXPOSURE, or SLOW-SHUTTER PHOTOGRAPHY involves using a long-duration shutter speed to sharply capture the stationary elements of images while blurring , smearing, or obscuring the moving elements. Long-exposure photography captures one element that conventional photography does not: an extended period of time. The paths of bright moving objects become clearly visible. Clouds form broad bands, head and tail lights of cars draw bright streaks, stars leave trails in the sky, and water waves appear smoothened. Only bright objects will leave visible trails, whereas dark objects usually disappear. Boats in long exposures will disappear during daytime, but will draw bright trails from their lights at night
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Celestial Pole
The north and south CELESTIAL POLES are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth
Earth
's axis of rotation , indefinitely extended, intersects the celestial sphere . The north and south celestial poles appear permanently directly overhead to an observer at the Earth's North Pole and South Pole , respectively. As the Earth
Earth
spins on its axis, the two celestial poles remain fixed in the sky, and all other points appear to rotate around them, completing one circuit per day (strictly per sidereal day ). The celestial poles are also the poles of the celestial equatorial coordinate system , meaning they have declinations of +90 degrees and −90 degrees (for the north and south celestial poles, respectively). The celestial poles do not remain permanently fixed against the background of the stars
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Shutter (photography)
In photography , a SHUTTER is a device that allows light to pass for a determined period, exposing photographic film or a light-sensitive electronic sensor to light in order to capture a permanent image of a scene. A shutter can also be used to allow pulses of light to pass outwards, as seen in a movie projector or a signal lamp . A shutter of variable speed is used to control exposure time of the film. The shutter is so constructed that it automatically closes after a certain required time interval. The speed of the shutter is controlled by a ring outside the camera, on which various timings are marked
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Darkness
DARKNESS, the polar opposite to brightness, is understood as a lack of illumination or an absence of visible light . Humans are unable to distinguish color in conditions of either high brightness or darkness. In conditions of insufficient light, perception is achromatic and ultimately, black. The emotional response to darkness has generated metaphorical usages of the term in many cultures. Complete darkness is when the sun is more than 18 degrees below the horizon. CONTENTS* 1 Scientific * 1.1 Perception * 1.2 Physics * 1.3 Technical * 2 Cultural * 2.1 Artistic * 2.2 Literature * 2.2.1 Religion * 2.2.2 Philosophy * 2.2.3 Poetry * 2.2.4 Language * 2.3 Greek mythology * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SCIENTIFICPERCEPTION Stare at the image for a minute, then look away. The image of Jesus in inverted color will appear
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Photograph
A PHOTOGRAPH or PHOTO is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic medium such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera , which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see. The process and practice of creating photographs is called photography . The word "photograph" was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek φῶς (phos), meaning "light", and γραφή (graphê), meaning "drawing, writing", together meaning "drawing with light"
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Celestial Sphere
In astronomy and navigation , the CELESTIAL SPHERE is an abstract sphere , with an arbitrarily large radius , that is concentric to Earth
Earth
. All objects in the observer's sky can be conceived as projected upon the inner surface of the celestial sphere, as if it were the underside of a dome or a hemispherical screen . The celestial sphere is a practical tool for spherical astronomy , allowing observers to plot positions of objects in the sky when their distances are unknown or trivial. CONTENTS * 1 Introduction * 2 Celestial coordinate systems * 3 History * 4 Star globe * 5 Bodies other than Earth
Earth
* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links INTRODUCTION Celestial Sphere, 18th century. Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum

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Astronomy
ASTRONOMY (from Greek : αστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics , physics , and chemistry , in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution . Objects of interest include planets , moons , stars , galaxies , and comets ; while the phenomena include supernova explosions , gamma ray bursts , and cosmic microwave background radiation . More generally, all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth\'s atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology , is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy
Astronomy
is the oldest of the natural sciences. The early civilizations in recorded history , such as the Babylonians , Greeks , Indians , Egyptians , Nubians
Nubians
, Iranians , Chinese , and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), also sometimes erroneously referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. American inventor and politician Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
proposed a form of daylight time in 1784. He wrote an essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light" to the editor of The Journal of Paris , suggesting, somewhat jokingly, that Parisians could economize candle usage by getting people out of bed earlier in the morning, making use of the natural morning light instead. New Zealander George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895
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Time Zone
A TIME ZONE is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Time
Time
zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) by a whole number of hours ( UTC−12 to UTC+14), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (for example Newfoundland Standard Time
Time
is UTC−03:30, Nepal
Nepal
Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time is UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones
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Equation Of Time
The EQUATION OF TIME describes the discrepancy between two kinds of solar time . The word equation is used in the medieval sense of "reconcile a difference". The two times that differ are the apparent solar time, which directly tracks the diurnal motion of the Sun
Sun
, and mean solar time, which tracks a theoretical mean Sun
Sun
with noons 24 hours apart. Apparent solar time
Apparent solar time
can be obtained by measurement of the current position (hour angle ) of the Sun, as indicated (with limited accuracy) by a sundial . Mean solar time, for the same place, would be the time indicated by a steady clock set so that over the year its differences from apparent solar time would resolve to zero. The equation of time is the east or west component of the analemma , a curve representing the angular offset of the Sun
Sun
from its mean position on the celestial sphere as viewed from Earth
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Azimuth
An AZIMUTH (/ˈæzɪməθ/ ( listen )) (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system . The vector from an observer (origin ) to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a reference plane ; the angle between the projected vector and a reference vector on the reference plane is called the azimuth. An example is the position of a star in the sky. The star is the point of interest, the reference plane is the horizon or the surface of the sea , and the reference vector points north . The azimuth is the angle between the north vector and the perpendicular projection of the star down onto the horizon. Azimuth
Azimuth
is usually measured in degrees (°). The concept is used in navigation , astronomy , engineering , mapping , mining and artillery
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Concentric
In geometry , two or more objects are said to be CONCENTRIC, COAXAL, or COAXIAL when they share the same center or axis . Circles , regular polygons and regular polyhedra , and spheres may be concentric to one another (sharing the same center point), as may cylinders (sharing the same central axis). CONTENTS * 1 Geometric properties * 2 Applications and examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links GEOMETRIC PROPERTIESIn the Euclidean plane , two circles that are concentric necessarily have different radii from each other. However, circles in three-dimensional space may be concentric, and have the same radius as each other, but nevertheless be different circles. For example, two different meridians of a terrestrial globe are concentric with each other and with the globe of the earth (approximated as a sphere). More generally, every two great circles on a sphere are concentric with each other and with the sphere
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Arc (geometry)
In Euclidean geometry , an ARC (symbol: ⌒) is a closed segment of a differentiable curve . A common example in the plane (a two-dimensional manifold ), is a segment of a circle called a CIRCULAR ARC. In space, if the arc is part of a great circle (or great ellipse ), it is called a GREAT ARC. Every pair of distinct points on a circle determines two arcs. If the two points are not directly opposite each other, one of these arcs, the MINOR ARC, will subtend an angle at the centre of the circle that is less than π radians (180 degrees), and the other arc, the MAJOR ARC, will subtend an angle greater than π radians
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Weather
WEATHER is the state of the atmosphere , to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.