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Cardiac Muscle
Cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle
(heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle. It is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls of the heart. This muscle tissue is known as myocardium, and forms a thick middle layer between the outer layer of the heart wall (the epicardium) and the inner layer (the endocardium). Myocardium
Myocardium
is composed of individual heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) joined together by intercalated disks, encased by collagen fibres and other substances forming the extracellular matrix. Cardiac muscle
Cardiac muscle
contracts in a similar manner to skeletal muscle, although with some important differences. An electrical stimulation in the form of an action potential triggers the release of calcium from the cell's internal calcium store, the sarcoplasmic reticulum
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Fibroblast
A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen,[1] the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing. Fibroblasts are the most common cells of connective tissue in animals.Contents1 Structure1.1 Relationship with fibrocytes 1.2 Development2 Function2.1 Inflammation 2.2 Tumour mediation 2.3 Secondary actions3 See also 4 References 5 External linksStructure[edit]Microfilaments, mitochondria, and nuclei in fibroblast cellsFibroblasts have a branched cytoplasm surrounding an elliptical, speckled nucleus having two or more nucleoli. Active fibroblasts can be recognized by their abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum. Inactive fibroblasts (called fibrocytes) are smaller, spindle shaped, and have a reduced rough endoplasmic reticulum
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Collagen
Collagen
Collagen
/ˈkɒlədʒɪn/ is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals,[1] making up from 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Collagen
Collagen
consists of amino acids wound together to form triple-helices to form of elongated fibrils.[2] It is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments and skin. Depending upon the degree of mineralization, collagen tissues may be rigid (bone), compliant (tendon), or have a gradient from rigid to compliant (cartilage). It is also abundant in corneas, cartilage, bones, blood vessels, the gut, intervertebral discs, and the dentin in teeth.[3] In muscle tissue, it serves as a major component of the endomysium
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Endothelium
Endothelium
Endothelium
refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels,[1] forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple, or single-layered, squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, whereas those in direct contact with lymph are known as lymphatic endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries. These cells have unique functions in vascular biology
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Cell Nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin
Latin
nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others have many. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA
DNA
molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell
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Mitochondrion
1 Outer membrane1.1 Porin2 Intermembrane space2.1 Intracristal space 2.2 Peripheral space3 Lamella3.1 Inner membrane3.11 Inner boundary membrane 3.12 Cristal membrane3.2 Matrix 3.3 Cristæ4 Mitochondrial DNA 5 Matrix granule 6 Ribosome 7 ATP synthaseThe mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms may however lack them (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells). A number of unicellular organisms, such as microsporidia, parabasalids, and diplomonads, have also reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures.[1] To date, only one eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is known to have completely lost its mitochondria.[2] The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος, mitos, "thread", and χονδρίον, chondrion, "granule"[3] or "grain-like"
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Adenosine Triphosphate
Adenosine
Adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP
ATP
is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.[1] When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts to either the di- or monophosphates, respectively ADP and AMP. Other processes regenerate ATP
ATP
such that the human body recycles its own body weight equivalent in ATP
ATP
each day.[2] It is also a precursor to DNA and RNA. From the perspective of biochemistry, ATP
ATP
is classified as a nucleoside triphosphate, which indicates that it consists of three components, a nitrogenous base (adenine), the sugar ribose, and the triphosphate
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Phospholipid Bilayer
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around all cells. The cell membranes of almost all living organisms and many viruses are made of a lipid bilayer, as are the membranes surrounding the cell nucleus and other sub-cellular structures. The lipid bilayer is the barrier that keeps ions, proteins and other molecules where they are needed and prevents them from diffusing into areas where they should not be. Lipid bilayers are ideally suited to this role, even though they are only a few nanometers in width,[1] they are impermeable to most water-soluble (hydrophilic) molecules
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Extracellular Fluid
Extracellular fluid
Extracellular fluid
(ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells. Total body water in humans makes up between 45 to 75% of total body weight. About two thirds of this is intracellular fluid within cells, and one third is the extracellular fluid.[1] The main component of the extracellular fluid is the interstitial fluid that bathes cells. Extracellular fluid
Extracellular fluid
is the internal environment of all multicellular animals, and in those animals with a blood circulatory system a proportion of this fluid is blood plasma.[2] Plasma and interstitial fluid are the two compartments that make up at least 97% of the ECF. Lymph
Lymph
makes up a small percentage of the interstitial fluid.[3] The remaining small portion of the ECF includes the transcellular fluid (about 2.5%)
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Extracellular Matrix
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.[1][2] Because multicellularity evolved independently in different multicellular lineages, the composition of ECM varies between multicellular structures; however, cell adhesion, cell-to-cell communication and differentiation are common functions of the ECM.[3] The animal extracellular matrix includes the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane.[4] Interstitial matrix is present between various animal cells (i.e., in the intercellular spaces). Gels of polysaccharides and fibrous proteins fill the interstitial space and act as a compression buffer against the stress placed on the ECM.[5] Basement membranes are sheet-like depositions of ECM on which various epithelial cells rest
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Cardiac Action Potential
The cardiac action potential is a brief change in voltage (membrane potential) across the cell membrane of heart cells.[1] This is caused by the movement of charged atoms (called ions) between the inside and outside of the cell, through proteins called ion channels. The cardiac action potential differs from action potentials found in other types of electrically excitable cells, such as nerves. Action potentials also vary within the heart; this is due to the presence of different ion channels in different cells (see below). Unlike the action potential in skeletal muscle cells, the cardiac action potential is not initiated by nervous activity. Instead, it arises from a group of specialized cells, that have automatic action potential generation. In healthy hearts, these cells are found in the right atrium and are called the sinoatrial node (SAN; see below for more details). They produce roughly 60-100 action potentials every minute
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Capillary
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick. They are the smallest blood vessels in the body: they convey blood between the arterioles and venules
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Adherens Junctions
Adherens junctions (or zonula adherens, intermediate junction, or "belt desmosome"[1]) are protein complexes that occur at cell–cell junctions in epithelial and endothelial tissues,[2] usually more basal than tight junctions. An adherens junction is defined as a cell junction whose cytoplasmic face is linked to the actin cytoskeleton. They can appear as bands encircling the cell (zonula adherens) or as spots of attachment to the extracellular matrix (adhesion plaques). Adherens junctions uniquely disassemble in uterine epithelial cells to allow the blastocyst to penetrate between epithelial cells.[3] A similar cell junction in non-epithelial, non-endothelial cells is the fascia adherens. It is structurally the same, but appears in ribbonlike patterns that do not completely encircle the cells. One example is in cardiomyocytes.Contents1 Proteins 2 Models 3 References 4 External linksProteins[edit] Adherens junctions are composed of the following proteins:[4]cadherins
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Area Composita
The area composita is a special heart muscle specific mixed type adhering junction connecting single cardiomyocytes. They are responsible for the force transmission during muscle contraction and are believed to be the main component of the mammalian cardiac intercalated discs (see Franke et al. 2006; Pieperhoff and Franke, 2007; Pieperhoff and Franke, 2008; see also Goossens et al., 2007). Area composita structures consist of typical desmosomal in addition to typical fascia adhaerens proteins, whereas in epithelia both molecular classes show distinct and mutual exclusive localizations and both structures are also well separated. References[edit]Borrmann, C. M., Grund, C., Kuhn, C., Hofmann, I., Pieperhoff, S., Franke, W. W., 2006. The area composita of adhering junctions connecting heart muscle cells of vertebrates. II. Colocalizations of desmosomal and fascia adhaerens molecules in the intercalated disk. Eur J Cell Biol 85, 469-85. Franke, W. W., Borrmann, C
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Anatomical Terminology
Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
uses many unique terms, suffixes, and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Latin. These terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise reducing ambiguity and errors. Also, since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less likely to change, and less likely to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand; and could be on the palm-side or back-side of the arm
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