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Carboniferous
The CARBONIFEROUS is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Permian
Permian
Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous
Carboniferous
means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words carbō ("coal ") and ferō ("I bear, I carry"), and was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern 'system' names to be employed, and reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time. The Carboniferous
Carboniferous
is often treated in North America
North America
as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the later Pennsylvanian . Terrestrial life was well established by the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period
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Mountain Building
MOUNTAIN FORMATION refers to the geological processes that underlie the formation of mountains . These processes are associated with large-scale movements of the Earth's crust (tectonic plates ). Folding , faulting , volcanic activity , igneous intrusion and metamorphism can all be parts of the orogenic process of mountain building. The formation of mountains is not necessarily related to the geological structures found on it. The understanding of specific landscape features in terms of the underlying tectonic processes is called tectonic geomorphology , and the study of geologically young or ongoing processes is called neotectonics
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William Phillips (geologist)
WILLIAM PHILLIPS FGS FRS (10 May 1775 – 2 April 1828) was an English mineralogist and geologist . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Notes * 3 References * 4 Further reading BIOGRAPHYPhillips was the son of James Phillips, printer and bookseller in London
London
. He became interested in mineralogy and geology, and was one of the founders of the Geological Society of London
Geological Society of London
(1807). His Outlines of Mineralogy and Geology (1815) and Elementary Introduction to the Knowledge of Mineralogy (1816) became standard textbooks
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Annum
A YEAR is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun
Sun
. Due to the Earth's axial tilt , the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons , marked by changes in weather , the hours of daylight , and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility . In temperate and subpolar regions around the globe, four seasons are generally recognized: spring , summer , autumn and winter . In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics , the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar . The Gregorian, or modern, calendar , presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars ; see below
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Carbon Dioxide
CARBON DIOXIDE (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of air (1.225 g/L) that is odorless at normally encountered concentrations. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth\'s atmosphere as a trace gas at a concentration of about 0.04 percent (400 ppm ) by volume. Natural sources include volcanoes , hot springs and geysers , and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater , rivers and lakes , ice caps , glaciers and seawater . It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas
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Parts Per Million
In science and engineering , the PARTS-PER NOTATION is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities , e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction . Since these fractions are quantity-per-quantity measures, they are pure numbers with no associated units of measurement . Commonly used are PPM (parts-per-million, 10−6), PPB (parts-per-billion, 10−9), PPT (parts-per-trillion, 10−12) and PPQ (parts-per-quadrillion, 10−15). CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy * 2 Parts-per expressions * 3 Criticism * 3.1 Long and short scales
Long and short scales
* 3.2 Thousand vs. trillion * 3.3 Mass fraction vs. mole fraction vs
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust
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Oxygen
OXYGEN is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as other compounds . By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium . At standard temperature and pressure , two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen , a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. This is an important part of the atmosphere and diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth\'s atmosphere . Additionally, as oxides the element makes up almost half of the Earth\'s crust
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Glaciation
A GLACIAL PERIOD (alternatively GLACIAL or GLACIATION) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials , on the other hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods. The last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago. The Holocene epoch is the current interglacial. A time when there are no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state . Look up GLACIATION in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.CONTENTS * 1 Quaternary ice age * 2 Last glacial period * 3 Next glacial period * 4 See also * 5 References QUATERNARY ICE AGE Main articles: Quaternary glaciation
Quaternary glaciation
and timeline of glaciation Glacial and interglacial cycles as represented by atmospheric CO2 , measured from ice core samples going back 800,000 years
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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest period of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic eon, which is named after Cambria , the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale . It spans from the formation of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago (Ga ) to the beginning of the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period, about 541 million years ago (Ma ), when hard-shelled creatures first appeared in abundance
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Coal
COAL is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called COAL BEDS or COAL SEAMS. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal , can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure . Coal
Coal
is composed primarily of carbon , along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen , sulfur , oxygen , and nitrogen . A fossil fuel , coal forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat , which in turn is converted into lignite , then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal , and lastly anthracite . This involves biological and geological processes that take place over time. Throughout human history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is also used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals
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William Conybeare (geologist)
WILLIAM DANIEL CONYBEARE FRS (7 June 1787 – 12 August 1857), dean of Llandaff
Llandaff
, was an English geologist, palaeontologist and clergyman. He is probably best known for his ground-breaking work on marine reptile fossils in the 1820s, including important papers for the Geological Society of London on ichthyosaur anatomy and the first published scientific description of a plesiosaur . CONTENTS* 1 Life and career * 1.1 Childhood and education * 1.2 Early career * 1.3 Geology * 1.4 Death * 2 Works * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE AND CAREERCHILDHOOD AND EDUCATIONHe was a grandson of John Conybeare , bishop of Bristol (1692–1755), a notable preacher and divine, and son of Dr William Conybeare, rector of Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate

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Period (geology)
A GEOLOGIC PERIOD is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions into which geologists have split the Earth\'s history . Eons and eras are larger subdivisions than periods while periods themselves may be divided into epochs and ages . The rocks formed during a period belong to a stratigraphic unit called a system . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Correlation issues * 3 See also * 4 References STRUCTUREThe twelve currently recognised periods of the present eon – the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
– are defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
(ICS) by reference to the stratigraphy at particular locations around the world
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System (stratigraphy)
A SYSTEM in stratigraphy is a unit of rock layers that were laid down together within the same corresponding geological period . The associated period is a chronological time unit , a part of the geological time scale , while the system is a unit of chronostratigraphy . Systems are unrelated to lithostratigraphy , which subdivides rock layers on their lithology . Systems are subdivisions of erathems and are themselves divided into series and stages . CONTENTS * 1 Systems in the geological timescale * 2 Multidiscipline comparison * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links SYSTEMS IN THE GEOLOGICAL TIMESCALEThe systems of the Phanerozoic were defined during the 19th century, beginning with the Cretaceous (by Belgian geologist Jean d\'Omalius d\'Halloy in the Paris Basin ) and the Carboniferous (by British geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips ) in 1822)
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Amniote
AMNIOTES (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb" ) are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles , birds , and mammals that lay their eggs on land or retain the fertilized egg within the mother. They are distinguished from the anamniotes (fishes and amphibians ), which typically lay their eggs in water. Older sources, particularly prior to the 20th century, may refer to amniotes as "higher vertebrates" and anamniotes as "lower vertebrates", based on the discredited idea of the great chain of being . Amniotes are tetrapods (descendants of four-limbed and backboned animals) that are characterised by having an egg equipped with an amnion , an adaptation to lay eggs on land rather than in water as the anamniotes (including frogs) typically do
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