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Carbonatite
Carbonatite
Carbonatite
( /kɑːrˈbɒnətaɪt/) is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.[1] Carbonatites may be confused with marble and may require geochemical verification. Carbonatites usually occur as small plugs within zoned alkalic intrusive complexes, or as dikes, sills, breccias, and veins. They are almost exclusively associated with continental rift-related tectonic settings. It seems that there has been a steady increase in the carbonatitic igneous activity through the Earth's history, from the Archean
Archean
eon to the present. Nearly all carbonatite occurrences are intrusives or subvolcanic intrusives. This is because carbonatite lava flows, being composed largely of soluble carbonates, are easily weathered and are therefore unlikely to be preserved in the geologic record
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Volcano
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.[1] Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Ancylite
Ancylite
Ancylite
is a group of hydrous strontium carbonate minerals containing cerium, lanthanum and minor amounts of other rare-earth elements. The composition is Sr(Ce,La)(CO3)2(OH)·H2O with ancylite-Ce enriched in cerium and ancylite-La in lanthanum.[1][2] Ancylite
Ancylite
was first described in 1899 for an occurrence in the Narsarsuk pegmatite in west Greenland
Greenland
and named from the Greek αυκιλος for curved in reference to its rounded or distorted crystal form.[1][3] References[edit]^ a b http://webmineral.com/data/Ancylite-(Ce).shtml Webmineral data Ancylite-Ce. ^ http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/ancylitela.pdf[permanent dead link] Handbook of Mineralogy. ^ http://www.mindat.org/min-216.html Mindat.This article about a specific carbonate mineral is a stub
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Subvolcanic Rock
A subvolcanic rock, also known as a hypabyssal rock, is an intrusive igneous rock that is emplaced at medium to shallow depths (>2 km) within the crust, and has intermediate grain size and often porphyritic texture between that of volcanic and plutonic rocks. Subvolcanic rocks include diabase (also known as dolerite) and porphyry. Common examples of subvolcanic rocks are diabase, quartz-dolerite, micro-granite and diorite.[1][2] See also[edit]Intrusion Volcanic rockReferences[edit]^ "Examples of rocks with different names". Retrieved 12 June 2015.  ^ " Igneous rock
Igneous rock
types - Australian Museum"
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Trace Element
A trace element is a chemical element whose concentration (or other measure of amount) is very low (a "trace amount"). The exact definition depends on the field of science:In analytical chemistry, a trace element is one whose average concentration is less than 100 parts per million (ppm) measured in atomic count or less than 100 micrograms per gram. In biochemistry, a trace element is a dietary element that is needed in very minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism.[1] Some examples of trace elements within the human body are cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese and zinc.[2] In geochemistry, a trace element is one whose concentration is less than 1000 ppm or 0.1 % of a rock's composition. The term is used mainly in igneous petrology. Trace elements will be either compatible with a liquid or solid phase
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History Of Earth
The history of Earth
Earth
concerns the development of planet Earth
Earth
from its formation to the present day.[1][2] Nearly all branches of natural science have contributed to understanding of the main events of Earth's past, characterized by constant geological change and biological evolution. The geological time scale (GTS), as defined by international convention,[3] depicts the large spans of time from the beginning of the Earth
Earth
to the present, and its divisions chronicle some definitive events of Earth
Earth
history. (In the graphic: Ga means "billion years ago"; Ma, "million years ago".) Earth
Earth
formed around 4.54 billion years ago, approximately one-third the age of the universe, by accretion from the solar nebula.[4][5][6] Volcanic outgassing probably created the primordial atmosphere and then the ocean, but the early atmosphere contained almost no oxygen
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Jacupiranga
Jacupiranga
Jacupiranga
is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil. The population is 17,851 (2015 est.) in an area of 704 km².[1] The elevation is 33 m. The municipality contains part of the 182,596 hectares (451,200 acres) Rio Turvo State Park, created in 2008.[2] See also[edit] Jacupiranga
Jacupiranga
State ParkReferences[edit]^ Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística ^ Zanchetta, Inês; Bedeschi, Luciana (28 February 2008), Mosaico do Jacupiranga, no Vale do Ribeira, agora é lei (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved 2016-11-20 External links[edit] Jacupiranga
Jacupiranga
at citybrazil.com Official webseite of the municipalityThis geographical article relating to the state of São Paulo is a stub
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Facies
In geology, a facies (pronounced variously as /ˈfeɪʃiːz/, /ˈfeɪsiːz/ or /ˈfæʃiːz/ ['faysheez', 'fayseez' or 'fash-eez']; plural also 'facies') is a body of rock with specified characteristics,[1] which can be any observable attribute of rocks such as their overall appearance, composition, or condition of formation, and the changes that may occur in those attributes over a geographic area
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Gregoryite
Gregoryite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral that is rich in potassium and sodium[4] with formula: [(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3].[1][5][6] It is one of the two main ingredients of natrocarbonatite, found naturally in the lava of Ol Doinyo Lengai
Ol Doinyo Lengai
volcano, the other being nyerereite.[7] Because of its anhydrous nature, gregoryite reacts quickly with the environment, causing the dark lava to be converted to white substance within hours.[4] Gregoryite was first described in 1980 and named after the British geologist and author John Walter Gregory
John Walter Gregory
(1864–1932), who studied the East African Rift
East African Rift
Valley.[1][2] It occurs associated with nyerereite, alabandite, halite, sylvite, fluorite and calcite.[3] References[edit]^ a b c Mindat.org ^ a b Webmineral.com ^ a b Handbook of Mineralogy ^ a b " Gregoryite definition". Dictionary of Geology
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Mica
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition
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Fluorite
Fluorite
Fluorite
(also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2. It belongs to the halide minerals. It crystallizes in isometric cubic habit, although octahedral and more complex isometric forms are not uncommon. Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch Hardness comparison, defines value 4 as Fluorite. Fluorite
Fluorite
is a colorful mineral, both in visible and ultraviolet light, and the stone has ornamental and lapidary uses. Industrially, fluorite is used as a flux for smelting, and in the production of certain glasses and enamels. The purest grades of fluorite are a source of fluoride for hydrofluoric acid manufacture, which is the intermediate source of most fluorine-containing fine chemicals. Optically clear transparent fluorite lenses have low dispersion, so lenses made from it exhibit less chromatic aberration, making them valuable in microscopes and telescopes
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Barite
Baryte
Baryte
or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.[2] The baryte group consists of baryte, celestine, anglesite and anhydrite. Baryte
Baryte
is generally white or colorless, and is the main source of barium
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Earth's Mantle
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies. For a mantle to form, the planetary body must be large enough to have undergone the process of planetary differentiation by density. The mantle is bounded on the bottom by the planetary core and on top by the crust
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Igneous Differentiation
In geology, igneous differentiation, or magmatic differentiation, is an umbrella term for the various processes by which magmas undergo bulk chemical change during the partial melting process, cooling, emplacement, or eruption.Contents1 Definitions1.1 Primary melts 1.2 Parental melts 1.3 Cumulate rocks2 Underlying causes of differentiation2.1 Fractional crystallization of igneous rocks 2.2 Assimilation 2.3 Replenishment 2.4 Magma
Magma
mixing 2.5 Other mechanisms of differentiation3 Typical behaviours of magma chambers3.1 Dissolved gases4 Quantifying igneous differentiation 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDefinitions[edit] Primary melts[edit] When a rock melts to form a liquid, the liquid is known as a primary melt. Primary melts have not undergone any differentiation and represent the starting composition of a magma. In nature, primary melts are rarely seen. Some leucosomes of migmatites are examples of primary melts
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Immiscibility
Miscibility
Miscibility
/mɪsɪˈbɪlɪti/ is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution. The term is most often applied to liquids, but applies also to solids and gases. Water
Water
and ethanol, for example, are miscible because they mix in all proportions.[1] By contrast, substances are said to be immiscible if there are certain proportions in which the mixture does not form a solution. For example, butanone (methyl ethyl ketone) is significantly soluble in water, but these two solvents are not miscible because they are not soluble in all proportions.[2]Contents1 Organic compounds 2 Metals 3 Effect of entropy 4 Determination 5 See also 6 ReferencesOrganic compounds[edit] In organic compounds, the weight percent of hydrocarbon chain often determines the compound's miscibility with water
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Silicate
A silicate is a compound containing an anionic silicon compound. The great majority of the silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate ([SiF6]2−) and other anions are also included. "Orthosilicate" is the anion SiO4− 4 or its compounds. Related to orthosilicate are families of anions (and their compounds) with the formula [SiO2+n]2n−. Important members are the cyclic and single chain silicates [SiO3]2− n and the sheet-forming silicates [SiO2.5]− n.[1] Silicates constitute the majority of Earth's crust, as well as the other terrestrial planets, rocky moons, and asteroids. Sand, Portland cement, and thousands of minerals are examples of silicates. Silicate compounds, including the minerals, consist of silicate anions whose charge is balanced by various cations. Myriad silicate anions can exist, and each can form compounds with many different cations. Hence this class of compounds is very large
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