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Carbonation
Carbonation refers to reactions of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.[1] In chemistry, the terms is sometimes used in place of carboxylation, which refers to the formation of carboxylic acids. In inorganic chemistry and geology, carbonation is common. Metal hydroxides (MOH) and metal oxides (M'O) react with CO2 to give bicarbonates and carbonates:MOH + CO2 → M(HCO3) M'O + CO2 → M'CO3In reinforced concrete construction, the chemical reaction between carbon dioxide in the air and calcium hydroxide and hydrated calcium silicate in the concrete is known as neutralisation. Henry's Law[edit] Henry's Law states that PCO2=KBxCO2 Where PCO2 is the partial pressure of CO2 gas above the solution. KB is Henry's Law Constant. KB increases as temperature increase. xCO2 is the mole fraction of CO2 gas in the solution
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D Electron Count
The d electron count is a chemistry formalism used to describe the electron configuration of the valence electrons of a transition metal center in a coordination complex.[1][2] The d electron count is an effective way to understand the geometry and reactivity of transition metal complexes
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Cyclopentadienyl Complex
A cyclopentadienyl complex is a metal complex with one or more cyclopentadienyl groups (C 5H− 5, abbreviated as Cp−). Cyclopentadienyl ligands almost invariable bind to metals as pentahapto (η5-) bonding mode. The metal–cyclopentadienyl interaction is typically drawn as a single line from the metal center to the center of the Cp ring.[1]Contents1 Examples 2 Bonding modes 3 Synthesis of Cp complexes 4 Variations of Cp complexes4.1 Ansa Cp ligands 4.2 Cp* complexes 4.3 Constrained geometry complexes5 Applications 6 References 7 Further readingExamples[edit] Biscyclopentadienyl complexes are called metallocenes. A famous example of this type of complex is ferrocene (FeCp2), which has many analogues for other metals, such as chromocene (CrCp2), cobaltocene (CoCp2), and nickelocene (NiCp2). When the Cp rings are mutually parallel the compound is known as a sandwich complex. This area of organometallic chemistry was first developed in the 1950s
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Oxidative Addition
Oxidative addition
Oxidative addition
and reductive elimination are two important and related classes of reactions in organometallic chemistry.[1][2][3][4] Oxidative addition
Oxidative addition
is a process that increases both the oxidation state and coordination number of a metal centre
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Migratory Insertion
A migratory insertion is a type of reaction in organometallic chemistry wherein two ligands on a metal complex combine. It is a subset of reactions that very closely resembles the insertion reactions, and both are differentiated by the mechanism that leads to the resulting stereochemistry of the products
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Beta-Hydride Elimination
β- Hydride elimination is a reaction in which an alkyl group bonded to a metal centre is converted into the corresponding metal-bonded hydride and an alkene.[1] The alkyl must have hydrogens on the β-carbon. For instance butyl groups can undergo this reaction but methyl groups cannot. The metal complex must have an empty (or vacant) site cis to the alkyl group for this reaction to occur.The β-hydride elimination can either be a vital step in a reaction or an unproductive side reaction. The Shell higher olefin process
Shell higher olefin process
relies on β-hydride elimination to produce α-olefins which are used to produce detergents. Illustrative of a sometimes undesirable β-hydride elimination, β-hydride elimination in Ziegler–Natta polymerization results in polymers of decreased molecular weight
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Transmetalation
Transmetalation (alt. spelling: transmetallation) is a type of organometallic reaction that involves the transfer of ligands from one metal to another. It has the general form:M1–R + M2–R′ → M1–R′ + M2–Rwhere R and R′ can be, but are not limited to, an alkyl, aryl, alkynyl, allyl, halogen, or pseudo-halogen group. The reaction is usually an irreversible process due to thermodynamic and kinetic reasons. Thermodynamics will favor the reaction based on the electronegativities of the metals and kinetics will favor the reaction if there are empty orbitals on both metals.[1] There are different types of transmetalation including redox-transmetalation and redox-transmetalation/ligand exchange
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Carbometalation
Carbometalation (less often carbometallation) is an organometallic reaction involving the nucleophilic addition to alkenes and alkynes of a diverse range of organometallic reagents such as organolithium compounds, organocopper compounds and Grignard reagents according to the following general alkyne scheme:The addition can yield the cis or trans isomer and with unsymmetrical alkynes the organometallic compound can add in two different way thus control of regioselectivity is important. In a follow-up step the sensitive metalalkenyl group is replaced by an electrophile E+. Scope[edit] In one study methylphenylacetylene is reacted with phenylmagnesium bromide to a vinyl magnesium bromide which is quenched with water:[1][2]Another demonstration of this reaction type is an alternative route to tamoxifen starting from diphenylacetylene and ethyllithium:[3]The capturing electrophile here is triisopropyl borate forming the boronic acid R–B(OH)2
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Gilman Reagent
A Gilman reagent
Gilman reagent
is a lithium and copper (diorganocopper) reagent compound, R2CuLi, where R is an alkyl or aryl. These reagents are useful because, unlike related Grignard reagents and organolithium reagents, they react with organic halides to replace the halide group with an R group (the Corey-House reaction)
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Grignard Reaction
The Grignard reaction
Grignard reaction
(pronounced /ɡriɲar/) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.[1][2] This reaction is an important tool for the formation of carbon–carbon bonds.[3][4] The reaction of an organic halide with magnesium is not a Grignard reaction, but provides a Grignard reagent.[5]Grignard reactions and reagents were discovered by and are named after the French chemist François Auguste Victor Grignard
Victor Grignard
(University of Nancy, France), who published it in 1900 and was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
for this work.[6] Grignard reagents are similar to organolithium reagents because both are strong nucleophiles that can form new carbon–carbon bonds
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Metallocene
A metallocene is a compound typically consisting of two cyclopentadienyl anions (C 5H− 5, abbreviated Cp) bound to a metal center (M) in the oxidation state II, with the resulting general formula (C5H5)2M. Closely related to the metallocenes are the metallocene derivatives, e.g. titanocene dichloride, vanadocene dichloride. Certain metallocenes and their derivatives exhibit catalytic properties, although metallocenes are rarely used industrially. Cationic group 4 metallocene derivatives related to [Cp2ZrCH3]+ catalyze olefin polymerization. Some metallocenes consist of metal plus two cyclooctatetraenide anions (C 8H2− 8, abbreviated cot2−), namely the lanthanocenes and the actinocenes (uranocene and others). Metallocenes are a subset of a broader class of compounds called sandwich compounds. In the structure shown at right, the two pentagons are the cyclopentadienyl anions with circles inside them indicating they are aromatically stabilized
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Sandwich Compound
In organometallic chemistry, a sandwich compound is a chemical compound featuring a metal bound by haptic covalent bonds to two arene ligands. The arenes have the formula CnHn, substituted derivatives (for example Cn(CH3)n) and heterocyclic derivatives (for example BCnHn+1). Because the metal is usually situated between the two rings, it is said to be "sandwiched". A special class of sandwich complexes are the metallocenes. The term sandwich compound was introduced in organometallic nomenclature in during the mid-1950s in a report by J. D. Dunitz, L. E. Orgel and R. A. Rich, who confirmed the structure of ferrocene by X-ray crystallography.[1] The correct structure had been proposed several years previously by Robert Burns Woodward and, separately, by Ernst Otto Fischer. The structure helped explain puzzles about ferrocene's conformers, the molecule features an iron atom sandwiched between two parallel cyclopentadienyl rings
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Transition Metal Carbene Complex
A transition metal carbene complex is an organometallic compound featuring a divalent organic ligand. The divalent organic ligand coordinated to the metal center is called a carbene. Carbene
Carbene
complexes for almost all transition metals have been reported. Many methods for synthesizing them and reactions utilizing them have been reported. The term carbene ligand is a formalism since many are not derived from carbenes and almost none exhibit the reactivity characteristic of carbenes
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Transition Metal Carbyne Complex
Transition metal carbyne complexes are organometallic compounds with a triple bond between carbon and the transition metal. This triple bond consists of a σ-bond and two π-bonds.[1] The HOMO of the carbyne ligand interacts with the LUMO of the metal to create the σ-bond. The two π-bonds are formed when the two HOMO orbitals of the metal back-donate to the LUMO of the carbyne. They are also called metal alkylidynes—the carbon is a carbyne ligand. Such compounds are useful in organic synthesis of alkynes and nitriles. They have been the focus on much fundamental research.[2]Contents1 Synthesis1.1 Bridging alkylidyne ligands in cluster compounds2 Structure 3 Reactions and applications 4 ReferencesSynthesis[edit] Transition metal carbyne complexes are most common for the early transition metals, especially niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium
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Monsanto Process
The Monsanto process
Monsanto process
is an industrial method for the manufacture of acetic acid by catalytic carbonylation of methanol.[1] The Monsanto process has largely been supplanted by the Cativa process, a similar iridium-based process developed by BP Chemicals Ltd which is more economical and environmentally friendly. This process operates at a pressure of 30–60 atm and a temperature of 150–200 °C and gives a selectivity greater than 99%
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