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Carbonated Water
Carbonated water
Carbonated water
(also known as sparkling water, seltzer water, seltzer, bubbly water, or fizzy water, or the closely related club soda or soda water) is water into which carbon dioxide gas under pressure has been dissolved. Club soda or soda water may have additives, such as sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate or similar, but seltzer water is almost always composed of water and carbon dioxide with no other additives. Carbonation is the process that causes the water to become effervescent. Most carbonated water is sold in ready to drink bottles like carbonated beverages such as soft drinks, but it can also be prepared at home with soda makers. Carbonated water
Carbonated water
was invented by Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley
in 1767 when he discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide after suspending a bowl of water above a beer vat at a brewery in Leeds, England
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Club Soda (Montreal)
Club Soda is a music venue in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Its address is 1225 Saint Laurent Boulevard
Saint Laurent Boulevard
in the Quartier des Spectacles
Quartier des Spectacles
in the borough of Ville-Marie. History[edit] Club Soda was established in the early 1980s by Guy Gosselin, André Gagnon and Martin Després. The first act at Club Soda was Boule Noire in October 1983, which was followed by Ding et Dong. Club Soda was originally located on Park Avenue. Montreal
Montreal
concert promoter Rubin Fogel became a part owner in 1985.[1] The original Club Soda closed its doors in July 1999. It re-opened in its current location on Saint Laurent Boulevard
Saint Laurent Boulevard
on March 21, 2000, following extensive renovations. The building in which it is currently located was constructed in 1908 and was known as the Crystal Palace. During the 1940s it was a Cabaret
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Wine
Wine
Wine
(from Latin
Latin
vinum) is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes, generally Vitis
Vitis
vinifera, fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.[1] Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, and the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production
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Acid
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).[1] The first category of acids is the proton donors or Brønsted acids. In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H3O+ and are known as Arrhenius acids. Brønsted and Lowry generalized the Arrhenius theory to include non-aqueous solvents. A Brønsted or Arrhenius acid usually contains a hydrogen atom bonded to a chemical structure that is still energetically favorable after loss of H+. Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid.[2] Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts
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PH
In chemistry, pH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. More precisely it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion.[1] Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic
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Apple Juice
Apple
Apple
juice is a fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple. The resulting expelled juice may be further treated by enzymatic and centrifugal clarification to remove the starch and pectin, which holds fine particulate in suspension, and then pasteurized for packaging in glass, metal or aseptic processing system containers, or further treated by dehydration processes to a concentrate. Russet apple
Russet apple
juice from Bolney, Mid Sussex, England, in a glass.Due to the complex and costly equipment required to extract and clarify juice from apples in large volume, apple juice is normally produced commercially. In the United States, unfiltered fresh apple juice is made by smaller operations in areas of high apple production, in the form of unclarified apple cider
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Orange Juice
Orange juice
Orange juice
is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree, produced by squeezing oranges. It comes in several different varieties, including blood orange, navel oranges, valencia orange, clementine, and tangerine. As well as variations in oranges used, some varieties include differing amounts of juice vesicles, known as "pulp" in American English, and "juicy bits" in British English. These vesicles contain the juice of the orange and can be left in or removed during the manufacturing process. How juicy these vesicles are depend upon many factors, such as species, variety, and season
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Acid–base Homeostasis
Acid–base homeostasis
Acid–base homeostasis
is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF).[1] The proper balance between the acids and bases (i.e. the pH) in the ECF is crucial for the normal physiology of the body, and cellular metabolism.[1] The pH of the intracellular fluid and the extracellular fluid need to be maintained at a constant level.[2] Many extracellular proteins such as the plasma proteins and membrane proteins of the body's cells are very sensitive for their three dimensional structures to the extracellular pH.[3][4] Stringent mechanisms therefore exist to maintain the pH within very narrow limits. Outside the acceptable range of pH, proteins are denatured (i.e
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Alkalinity
Alkalinity
Alkalinity
is the capacity of water to resist changes in pH that would make the water more acidic.[1] (It should not be confused with basicity which is an absolute measurement on the pH scale.) Alkalinity is the strength of a buffer solution composed of weak acids and their conjugate bases. It is measured by titrating the solution with a monoprotic acid such as HCl
HCl
until its pH changes abruptly, or it reaches a known endpoint where that happens. Alkalinity
Alkalinity
is expressed in units of meq/L (milliequivalents per liter), which corresponds to the amount of monoprotic acid added as a titrant in millimoles per liter. Although alkalinity is primarily a term used by oceanographers it is also used by hydrologists. For instance, measuring alkalinity is important in determining a stream's ability to neutralize acidic pollution from rainfall or wastewater
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Salt (chemistry)
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.[1] Salts are composed of related numbers of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic, such as chloride (Cl−), or organic, such as acetate (CH 3CO− 2); and can be monatomic, such as fluoride (F−), or polyatomic, such as sulfate (SO2− 4).Contents1 Kinds of salts 2 Properties2.1 Color 2.2 Taste 2.3 Odor 2.4 Solubility 2.5 Conductivity 2.6 Melting point3 Nomenclature 4 Formation 5 Strong salt 6 Weak salts 7 See also 8 ReferencesKinds of salts[edit] Salts can be classified in a variety of ways. Salts that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are called alkali salts. Salts that produce acidic solutions are acidic salts. Neutral salts are those salts that are neither acidic nor basic
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Henry's Law
In chemistry, Henry's law is a gas law that states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase. The proportionality factor is called the Henry's law constant. It was formulated by the English chemist William Henry, who studied the topic in the early 19th century. In his publication about the quantity of gases absorbed by water,[1] he described the results of his experiments:..."water takes up, of gas condensed by one, two, or more additional atmospheres, a quantity which, ordinarily compressed, would be equal to twice, thrice, &c
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Beer
Beer
Beer
is one of the oldest[1][2][3] and most widely consumed[4] alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.[5] Beer
Beer
is brewed from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer.[6] Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops
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Champagne
Champagne
Champagne
(/ʃæmˈpeɪn/, French: [ʃɑ̃paɲ]) is a type of sparkling wine and type of an alcoholic drink produced from grapes grown in the Champagne
Champagne
region of
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Water
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Christopher Merret
Christopher Merret
Christopher Merret
FRS (16 February 1614/5 – 19 August 1695), also spelt Merrett, was an English physician and scientist. He was the first to document the deliberate addition of sugar for the production of sparkling wine, and produced the first lists of British birds and butterflies.Contents1 Life 2 Naturalist 3 Metallurgy and glass making 4 Bibliography 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife[edit] Merret was born in Winchcombe, Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
on 16 February; Hunter gives the year of his birth as 1615, which may be 1614 Old Style
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William Brownrigg
William Brownrigg (24 March 1711 – 1800) was a British doctor and scientist, who practised at Whitehaven
Whitehaven
in Cumberland. While there, William Brownrigg carried out experiments that won him not only a place in The Royal Society
The Royal Society
but the prized Copley Medal.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Medical career 3 Scientist3.1 Discovery of platinum 3.2 Salt manufacture 3.3 Franklin4 Other interests 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksEarly life and education[edit] He was born at High Close Hall, the son of local gentry, George Brownrigg. William's mother, Mary Brownrigg, was from Ireland. William was educated in Latin and Greek by a local clergyman from the age of 13 and by the age of 15 was an apprentice to an apothecary in Carlisle
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