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Carbon Tetrachloride
1.831 g cm−3 at −186 °C (solid) 1.809 g cm−3 at −80 °C (solid)Melting point −22.92 °C (−9.26 °F; 250.23 K)Boiling point 76.72 °C (170.10 °F; 349.87 K) Solubility
Solubility
in water0.097 g/100 mL (0 °C) 0.081 g/100 mL (25 °C)Solubility soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, naphtha, CS2, formic acidlog P 2.64
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R59
R59 may refer to: R59 (London Underground car) R59: Dangerous for the ozone layer, a risk phrase HMS Wakeful, pennant number R59, a British Royal Navy World War II W-class destroyer R59 road (South Africa)This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title formed as a letter-number combination. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the inten
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Coordination Geometry
The term coordination geometry is used in a number of related fields of chemistry and solid state chemistry/physics.Contents1 Molecules 2 Inorganic coordination complexes 3 Crystallography usage 4 Table of coordination geometries 5 Naming of inorganic compounds 6 See also 7 ReferencesMolecules[edit] Main article: Molecular geometry The coordination geometry of an atom is the geometrical pattern formed by atoms around the central atom. Inorganic coordination complexes[edit] In the field of inorganic coordination complexes it is the geometrical pattern formed by the atoms in the ligands that are bonded to the central atom in a molecule or a coordination complex. The geometrical arrangement will vary according to the number and type of ligands bonded to the metal centre, and to the coordination preference of the central atom, typically a metal in a coordination complex. The number of atoms bonded, (i.e
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Naphtha
Naphtha
Naphtha
(/ˈnæpθə/ or /ˈnæfθə/) is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture. Mixtures labelled naphtha have been produced from natural gas condensates, petroleum distillates, and the distillation of coal tar and peat. In different industries and regions naphtha may also be crude oil or refined products such as kerosene. Mineral spirits, also historically known as "naptha", are not the same chemical.Contents1 Etymology 2 Types 3 Health and safety considerations 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit]White gas, exemplified by Coleman Camp Fuel, is a common naphtha-based fuel used in many lanterns and torchesThe word naphtha is from Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
(νάφθα), derived from Middle Persian
Middle Persian
naft ("wet", "naphtha").[1][2] In Ancient Greek, it was used to refer to any sort of petroleum or pitch
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Formic Acid
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid. The chemical formula is HCOOH or HCO2H. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in some ants. The word "formic" comes from the Latin
Latin
word for ant, formica, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies
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Partition Coefficient
In the physical sciences, a partition-coefficient (P) or distribution-coefficient (D) is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium. This ratio is therefore a measure of the difference in solubility of the compound in these two phases. The partition-coefficient generally refers to the concentration ratio of un-ionized species of compound whereas the distribution-coefficient refers to the concentration ratio of all species of the compound (ionized plus un-ionized).[1] In the chemical and pharmaceutical sciences, both phases usually are solvents.[2] Most commonly, one of the solvents is water while the second is hydrophobic such as 1-octanol.[3] Hence the partition coefficient measures how hydrophilic ("water-loving") or hydrophobic ("water-fearing") a chemical substance is
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Vapor Pressure
Vapor
Vapor
pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile. The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation
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Henry's Law
In chemistry, Henry's law is a gas law that states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase. The proportionality factor is called the Henry's law constant. It was formulated by the English chemist William Henry, who studied the topic in the early 19th century. In his publication about the quantity of gases absorbed by water,[1] he described the results of his experiments:..."water takes up, of gas condensed by one, two, or more additional atmospheres, a quantity which, ordinarily compressed, would be equal to twice, thrice, &c
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Magnetic Susceptibility
In electromagnetism, the magnetic susceptibility (Latin: susceptibilis, "receptive"; denoted χ) is one measure of the magnetic properties of a material. The susceptibility indicates whether a material is attracted into or repelled out of a magnetic field, which in turn has implications for practical applications. Quantitative measures of the magnetic susceptibility also provide insights into the structure of materials, providing insight into bonding and energy levels. If the magnetic susceptibility is greater than zero, the substance is said to be "paramagnetic"; the magnetization of the substance is higher than that of empty space. If the magnetic susceptibility is less than zero, the substance is "diamagnetic"; it tends to exclude a magnetic field from its interior
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Refractive Index
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium. It is defined as n = c v , displaystyle n= frac c v , where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the phase velocity of light in the medium. For example, the refractive index of water is 1.333, meaning that light travels 1.333 times faster in vacuum than in the water. Refraction
Refraction
of a light rayThe refractive index determines how much the path of light is bent, or refracted, when entering a material. This is the first documented use of refractive indices and is described by Snell's law
Snell's law
of refraction, n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2, where θ1 and θ2 are the angles of incidence and refraction, respectively, of a ray crossing the interface between two media with refractive indices n1 and n2
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Crystal Structure
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.[3] Ordered structures occur from the intrinsic nature of the constituent particles to form symmetric patterns that repeat along the principal directions of three-dimensional space in matter. The smallest group of particles in the material that constitutes the repeating pattern is the unit cell of the structure. The unit cell completely defines the symmetry and structure of the entire crystal lattice, which is built up by repetitive translation of the unit cell along its principal axes. The repeating patterns are said to be located at the points of the Bravais lattice. The lengths of the principal axes, or edges, of the unit cell and the angles between them are the lattice constants, also called lattice parameters
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Monoclinic
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. A crystal system is described by three vectors. In the monoclinic system, the crystal is described by vectors of unequal lengths, as in the orthorhombic system. They form a rectangular prism with a parallelogram as its base
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Molecular Geometry
Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule. It includes the general shape of the molecule as well as bond lengths, bond angles, torsional angles and any other geometrical parameters that determine the position of each atom. Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
influences several properties of a substance including its reactivity, polarity, phase of matter, color, magnetism and biological activity.[1][2][3] The angles between bonds that an atom forms depend only weakly on the rest of molecule, i.e
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Solubility
Solubility
Solubility
is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and presence of other chemicals (including changes to the pH) of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Insolubility is the inability to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture
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Tetrahedron
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners. The tetrahedron is the simplest of all the ordinary convex polyhedra and the only one that has fewer than 5 faces.[1] The tetrahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a Euclidean simplex, and may thus also be called a 3-simplex. The tetrahedron is one kind of pyramid, which is a polyhedron with a flat polygon base and triangular faces connecting the base to a common point. In the case of a tetrahedron the base is a triangle (any of the four faces can be considered the base), so a tetrahedron is also known as a "triangular pyramid". Like all convex polyhedra, a tetrahedron can be folded from a single sheet of paper
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Specific Heat Capacity
Heat
Heat
capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.[1] The unit of heat capacity is joule per kelvin J K displaystyle mathrm tfrac J K , or kilogram metre squared per kelvin second squared k g ⋅ m 2 K ⋅ s 2 displaystyle mathrm tfrac kgcdot m^ 2 Kcdot s^ 2 in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI). The dimensional form is L2MT−2Θ−1
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