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Carbohydrate
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n).[1] This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4.[3] The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon;[4] structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketoses .[5] The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
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Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism. A flavoprotein is a protein that contains a flavin moiety, this may be in the form of FAD or flavin mononucleotide (FMN). There are many flavoproteins besides components of the succinate dehydrogenase complex, including α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; some examples are shown in section 6. FAD can exist in four different redox states, which are the flavin-N(5)-oxide, quinone, semiquinone, and hydroquinone.[1] FAD is converted between these states by accepting or donating electrons. FAD, in its fully oxidized form, or quinone form, accepts two electrons and two protons to become FADH2 (hydroquinone form)
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Coenzyme
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity. Cofactors can be considered "helper molecules" that assist in biochemical transformations. The rates at which these happen are characterized by enzyme kinetics. Cofactors can be subclassified as either inorganic ions or complex organic molecules called coenzymes,[1] the latter of which is mostly derived from vitamins and other organic essential nutrients in small amounts. A coenzyme that is tightly or even covalently bound is termed a prosthetic group.[2] Cosubstrates are transiently bound to the protein and will be released at some point, then get back in. The prosthetic groups, on the other hand, are bound permanently to the protein. Both of them have the same function, which is to facilitate the reaction of enzymes and protein
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Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Nicotinamide
Nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine base and the other nicotinamide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively. In metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD
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-ose
The suffix -ose (/oʊz/ or /oʊs/) is used in biochemistry to form the names of sugars. This Latin
Latin
suffix means "full of", "abounding in", "given to", or "like".[1] Numerous systems exist to name specific sugars more descriptively. Monosaccharides, the simplest sugars, may be named according to the number of carbon atoms in each molecule of the sugar: pentose is a five-carbon monosaccharide, and hexose is a six-carbon monosaccharide. Aldehyde
Aldehyde
monosaccharides may be called aldoses; ketone monosaccharides may be called ketoses. Larger sugars such as disaccharides and polysaccharides can be named to reflect their qualities. Lactose, a disaccharide found in milk, gets its name from the Latin
Latin
word for milk combined with the sugar suffix; its name means "milk sugar"
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Molecular Weight
Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule. It is calculated as the sum of the atomic weights of each constituent element multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in the molecular formula. The molecular mass of small to medium size molecules, measured by mass spectrometry, determines stoichiometry. For large molecules such as proteins, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic data are not available.Contents1 Definitions 2 Determination2.1 Mass spectrometry 2.2 Hydrodynamic methods 2.3 Static light scattering3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinitions[edit] Both atomic and molecular masses are usually obtained relative to the mass of the isotope 12C (carbon 12), which by definition[1] is equal to 12
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Fertilization
Fertilisation
Fertilisation
or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation,[1] is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.[2] The cycle of fertilisation and development of new individuals is called sexual reproduction. During double fertilisation in angiosperms the haploid male gamete combines with two haploid polar nuclei to form a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by the process of vegetative fertilisation.Contents1 History 2 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in plants2.1 Bryophytes 2.2 Ferns 2.3 Gymnosperms 2.4 Flowering plants 2.5 Self-Pollination3 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in animals3.1 Internal vs
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Pathogenesis
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent. The word comes from the Greek πάθος pathos ("disease") and γένεσις genesis ("creation").Contents1 Description 2 See also 3 References 4 Further readingDescription[edit] Types of pathogenesis include microbial infection, inflammation, malignancy and tissue breakdown. For example, bacterial pathogenesis is the mechanism by which bacteria cause infectious illness. Most diseases are caused by multiple processes
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Blood Clotting
Coagulation
Coagulation
(also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion, and aggregation of platelets along with deposition and maturation of fibrin. Disorders of coagulation are disease states which can result in bleeding (hemorrhage or bruising) or obstructive clotting (thrombosis).[1] Coagulation
Coagulation
is highly conserved throughout biology; in all mammals, coagulation involves both a cellular (platelet) and a protein (coagulation factor) component.[2] The system in humans has been the most extensively researched and is the best understood.[3] Coagulation
Coagulation
begins almost instantly after an injury to the blood vessel has damaged the endothelium lining the vessel
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Developmental Biology
Developmental biology
Developmental biology
is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop
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Hydroxy Group
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH. It contains oxygen bonded to hydrogen. In organic chemistry, alcohol and carboxylic acids contain hydroxy groups. The anion [OH−], called hydroxide, consists of a hydroxy group. According to IUPAC rules, the term hydroxyl refers to the radical OH only, while the functional group −OH is called hydroxy group.[1]Contents1 Properties 2 Occurrence 3 Hydroxyl radical 4 Lunar and other extraterrestrial observations 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksProperties[edit] Water, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and many other hydroxy-containing compounds can be deprotonated readily. This behavior is rationalized by the disparate electronegativities of oxygen and hydrogen. Hydroxy-containing compounds engage in hydrogen bonding, which causes them to stick together, leading to higher boiling and melting points than found for compounds that lack this functional group
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Aldehyde
An aldehyde /ˈældɪhaɪd/ or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group,[1] which is any generic alkyl or side chain. The group—without R—is the aldehyde group, also known as the formyl group. Aldehydes are common in organic chemistry
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Jam
Fruit
Fruit
preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage. Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as those made from strawberry or apricot, and savory preserves, such as those made from tomatoes or squash. The ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves; jams, jellies, and marmalades are all examples of different styles of fruit preserves that vary based upon the fruit used
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USDA National Nutrient Database
The USDA National Nutrient Database is a database produced by the United States Department of Agriculture that provides the nutritional content of many generic and proprietary-branded foods. Released in August 2015 and revised in May 2016, the current release, Standard Reference 28 (SR28), contains "data on 8,800 food items and up to 150 food components".[1] New releases occur about once per year. The database may be searched online,[2] queried through a representational state transfer API,[3] or downloaded.[4] References[edit]^ Haytowitz, D.; Ahuja, J.; et al. (May 2015). "Composition of Foods Raw, Processed, Prepared" (PDF). USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved August 20, 2015.  ^ "Foods List". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2015. Retrieved August 20, 2015.  ^ "Show API Help". United States Department of Agriculture
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Empirical Formula
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.[1] A simple example of this concept is that the empirical formula of sulfur monoxide, or SO, would simply be SO, as is the empirical formula of disulfur dioxide, S2O2. This means that sulfur monoxide and disulfur dioxide, both compounds of sulfur and oxygen, will have the same empirical formula. However, their chemical formulas, which express the number of atoms in each molecule of a chemical compound, may not be the same. An empirical formula makes no mention of the arrangement or number of atoms. It is standard for many ionic compounds, like calcium chloride (CaCl2), and for macromolecules, such as silicon dioxide (SiO2). The molecular formula, on the other hand, shows the number of each type of atom in a molecule. The structural formula shows the arrangement of the molecule
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