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Caravanserai
A CARAVANSERAI (/kærəˈvænsəri/ ; was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners ) could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa , and Southeast Europe , especially along the Silk Road . These were found frequently along the Achaemenid Empire 's Royal Road , a 2,500-kilometre-long (1,600 mi) ancient highway that stretched from Sardis to Susa according to Herodotus : "Now the true account of the road in question is the following: Royal stations exist along its whole length, and excellent caravanserais; and throughout, it traverses an inhabited tract, and is free from danger." Major urban caravanserais were also built along the Grand Trunk Road in the Indian subcontinent , especially in the region of Mughal Delhi
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Caravanserai (album)
CARAVANSERAI is the fourth studio album by Santana , released on October 11, 1972. It marked a major turning point in Carlos Santana
Carlos Santana
's career as it was a sharp departure from his critically acclaimed first three albums. Original bass guitarist David Brown left the group in 1971 and was replaced by Doug Rauch and Tom Rutley, while original percussionist Michael Carabello left and was replaced by Armando Peraza
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Qalaat Al-Madiq
QALAAT AL-MADIQ (Arabic : قلعة المضيق‎ also spelled KAL\'AT AL-MUDIK or QAL\'AT AL-MUDIQ; also known as AFAMIYYA or FAMIYYAH) is a town and medieval fortress in northwestern Syria
Syria
, administratively part of the Hama Governorate
Hama Governorate
, located northeast of Hama
Hama
. It is situated in the al-Ghab plain , on the eastern bank of the Orontes River
Orontes River
. Nearby localities include the district center al-Suqaylabiyah to the south, Bureij and Karnaz
Karnaz
to the southeast, Kafr Nabudah to the east, al-Huwash to the north, Huwayjah al-Sallah and Shathah to the northwest and Tuwaini and Inab to the west. According to the Syria
Syria
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Qalaat al-Madiq
Qalaat al-Madiq
had a population of 12,925 in the 2004 census
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Caravan (travellers)
A CARAVAN (from Persian : کاروان‎‎) is a group of people traveling together, often on a trade expedition. Caravans were used mainly in desert areas and throughout the Silk Road , where traveling in groups aided in defense against bandits as well as helping to improve economies of scale in trade. In historical times, caravans connecting East Asia and Europe
Europe
often carried luxurious and lucrative goods, such as silks or jewelry. Caravans could therefore require considerable investment and were a lucrative target for bandits. The profits from a successfully undertaken journey could be enormous, comparable to the later European spice trade
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Trade Route
A TRADE ROUTE is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of water. Allowing goods to reach distant markets , a single trade route contains long distance arteries , which may further be connected to smaller networks of commercial and noncommercial transportation routes. Among notable trade routes was the Amber Road , which served as a dependable network for long-distance trade. Maritime trade along the Spice Route became prominent during the Middle Ages , when nations resorted to military means for control of this influential route. During the Middle Ages, organizations such as the Hanseatic League , aimed at protecting interests of the merchants, and trade became increasingly prominent
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North Africa
NORTH AFRICA is a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent . It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Morocco in the west, to the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Morocco , Algeria , and Tunisia , a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs as the Maghreb (“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Morocco , Algeria , and Tunisia , as well as Libya , Egypt , and Sudan . The term “North Africa”, when commonly used in North Africa and the Middle East, often refers only to the countries of the Maghreb and Libya
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Southeast Europe
SOUTHEAST EUROPE or SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE is a geographical region of Europe
Europe
, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula
Balkan peninsula
. There are many overlapping and conflicting definitions as to where exactly Southeastern Europe begins or ends or how it relates to other regions of the continent
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Silk Road
The SILK ROAD or SILK ROUTE was an ancient network of trade routes that were for centuries central to cultural interaction originally through regions of Eurasia
Eurasia
connecting the East and West and stretching from the Korean peninsula and Japan to the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea. The Silk
Silk
Road concept refers to both the terrestrial and the maritime routes connecting Asia and Europe. The overland Steppe route stretching through the Eurasian steppe is considered the ancestor to the Silk
Silk
Road(s). While the term is of modern coinage, the Silk
Silk
Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk (and horses) carried out along its length, beginning during the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(207 BCE – 220 CE)
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Achaemenid Empire
The ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (/əˈkiːmənɪd/ ; c. 550–330 BC), also called the FIRST PERSIAN EMPIRE, was an empire based in Western Asia , founded by Cyrus the Great . Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history , spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger than any previous empire in history . It is equally notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings ), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system , the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires
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Royal Road
The ROYAL ROAD was an ancient highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the first ( Achaemenid
Achaemenid
) Persian Empire in the 5th century BCE. Darius built the road to facilitate rapid communication throughout his very large empire from Susa
Susa
to Sardis . Mounted couriers of the Angarium could travel 1677 miles (2699 km) in seven days; the journey from Susa
Susa
to Sardis took ninety days on foot
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Sardis
SARDIS (/ˈsɑːrdɪs/ ) or SARDES (/ˈsɑːrdiːz/ ; Lydian : _Sfard_; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Σάρδεις _Sardeis_; Old Persian : _Sparda_) was an ancient city at the location of modern _Sart_ (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey
Turkey
's Manisa Province . Sardis
Sardis
was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia
Lydia
, one of the important cities of the Persian Empire , the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, and the metropolis of the province Lydia
Lydia
in later Roman and Byzantine
Byzantine
times. As one of the Seven churches of Asia
Seven churches of Asia
, it was addressed by John , the author of the Book of Revelation in the Holy Bible , in terms which seem to imply that its population was notoriously soft and fainthearted
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Susa
SUSA (/ˈsuːsə/ ; Persian : شوش‎‎ _Shush_; ; Hebrew : שׁוּשָׁן‎ _Shushān_; Greek : Σοῦσα ; Syriac : ܫܘܫ‎ _Shush_; Old Persian _Çūšā_) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite , Elamite , First Persian Empire , Seleucid , and Parthian empires of Iran , and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East . It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about 250 km (160 mi) east of the Tigris River , between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers. The modern Iranian town of Shush is located at the site of ancient Susa. Shush is the administrative capital of the Shush County of Iran's Khuzestan province. It had a population of 64,960 in 2005
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Herodotus
HERODOTUS (/hᵻˈrɒdətəs/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἡρόδοτος, _Hêródotos_, Attic Greek pronunciation: ) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
(modern-day Bodrum , Turkey
Turkey
) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides , Socrates
Socrates
, and Euripides
Euripides
. He is often referred to as "The Father of History", a title first conferred by Cicero
Cicero
; he was the first historian known to have broken from Homeric tradition to treat historical subjects as a method of investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials systematically and critically, and then arranging them into a historiographic narrative
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Grand Trunk Road
The GRAND TRUNK ROAD is one of Asia\'s oldest and longest major roads. For more than two millennia, it has linked South Asia
Asia
with Central Asia. It runs from Chittagong
Chittagong
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
west to Howrah
Howrah
, West Bengal
West Bengal
in India
India
, then across Northern India
India
through Delhi
Delhi
, passing from Amritsar . From there, the road continues towards Lahore and Peshawar
Peshawar
in Pakistan
Pakistan
, finally terminating in Kabul
Kabul
, Afghanistan
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Indian Subcontinent
The INDIAN SUBCONTINENT or the SUBCONTINENT, also called the INDIAN CONTINENT, is a southern region of Asia , mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas . Geologically , the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically , it is the peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east. Politically, the Indian subcontinent usually includes Bangladesh , Bhutan , India , Maldives , Nepal , Pakistan and Sri Lanka . Sometimes, the term South Asia is used interchangeably with Indian subcontinent
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Mughal Empire
The MUGHAL EMPIRE ( Urdu : مغلیہ سلطنت‎, translit. _Mughliyah Salṭanat_) or MOGUL EMPIRE, self-designated as GURKANI (Persian : گورکانیان‎‎, _Gūrkāniyān_, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire in the Indian subcontinent , established and ruled by a Muslim Turco-Mongol dynasty of Chagatai origin from Central Asia . The dynasty, though ethnically Turco-Mongol , was Persianate in culture, with local influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal empire extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan . The empire at its peak was the second largest to have existed in the Indian subcontinent , spanning 4 million square kilometres at its zenith after the Maurya Empire which spanned 5 million square kilometres
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