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Caravanserai
A caravanserai (/kærəˈvænsəˌraɪ/)[1] was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.[2] Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa and Southeast Europe, especially along the Silk Road. These were found frequently along the Achaemenid Empire's Royal Road, a 2,500-kilometre-long (1,600 mi) ancient highway that stretched from Sardis
Sardis

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Sarai Alamgir
Sarai Alamgir
Sarai Alamgir
(Punjabi, Urdu: سرائے عالمگیر) (pop. 175,288 (as per Government of Punjab figures from 1998) is the main town of Sarai Alamgir
Sarai Alamgir
Tehsil, located in the Gujrat district
Gujrat district
in the north of the Punjab province of Pakistan. Sarai Alamgir
Sarai Alamgir
is one of three tehsils of Gujrat district.[1] Sarai Alamgir
Sarai Alamgir
covers 575 km2 (222 sq mi) on the eastern bank of the Jhelum
Jhelum
River, across from the larger town of Jhelum. East of the town is the Upper Jhelum
Jhelum
Canal. Sarai Alamgir
Sarai Alamgir
was raised to the level of Municipal Committee in 1976
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Alhóndiga (other)
Alhóndiga
Alhóndiga
is a Spanish word (Spanish pronunciation: [aˈlondiɣa]) meaning a building for the commerce of wheat.[1] It comes from Andalusi Arabic
Andalusi Arabic
alfúndaq, itself from Classical Arabic funduq (فندق), "an inn", and ultimately from The Greek pandocheion, lit.: "welcoming all",[2] and thus meaning 'inn'. The common noun has given name to several concepts: Places[edit]Alhóndiga, a municipality of Guadalajara, Spain.Buildings[edit] Alhóndiga
Alhóndiga
de Granaditas, an old granary in Guanajuato, Mexico. Now a museum. Alhóndiga
Alhóndiga
Bilbao, a culture and leisure center in Bilbao, Spain
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Delhi Sarai Rohilla Railway Station
Delhi
Delhi
Sarai Rohilla
Rohilla
railway station, is situated about 4 km from old Delhi
Delhi
railway junction in India. Its station code is DEE. It is managed by Delhi
Delhi
Division of Northern Railway zone. Many trains from Delhi
Delhi
to Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Gujarat
Gujarat
stop at this station. More than twenty trains including Duronto and AC trains originate at this station.Contents1 Etymology 2 History2.1 Start 2.2 Gauge conversion3 Infrastructure 4 Trains 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] Sarai means an inn or resting place for travellers. The station is named after the medieval village it was located in. The village itself was named after a sarai, named after Ruhullah Khan, a noble in the Mughal court
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Sarai (other)
Sarai, Serai, or Saraj may refer to:Contents1 Places1.1 Azerbaijan 1.2 Afghanistan 1.3 Macedonia 1.4 India 1.5 Iran 1.6 Pakistan 1.7 Russia2 People 3 Other 4 See alsoPlaces[edit] Sarai (city), a large medieval city, and the capital city of the Golden Horde Saray-Jük, the Little Sarai of the Golden HordeAzerbaijan[edit] Sarai Village, an old Turkic village in Absheron, Baku Saray, Qubadli
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Jean Chardin
Jean Chardin
Jean Chardin
(16 November 1643 – 5 January 1713), born Jean-Baptiste Chardin, and also known as Sir John Chardin, was a French jeweller and traveller whose ten-volume book The Travels of Sir John Chardin is regarded as one of the finest works of early Western scholarship on Persia
Persia
and the Near East
Near East
in general.Contents1 Life and work 2 Family2.1 Value of Chardin's work3 French-language biographies of Chardin 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External linksLife and work[edit] He was born in Paris, son of a wealthy merchant, jeweller of the Place Dauphine, and followed his father's business. In 1664, he started for the East Indies with M. Raisin, a Lyons
Lyons
merchant. They journeyed by Constantinople
Constantinople
and the Black Sea, reaching Persia
Persia
early in 1666
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Bosnian Language
The Bosnian language
Bosnian language
(/ˈbɒzniən/ ( listen); bosanski / босански [bɔ̌sanskiː]) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
mainly used by Bosniaks.[4][5][6] Bosnian is one of three such varieties considered official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina,[7] along with Croatian and Serbian, and also an officially recognized minority or regional language in Serbia,[8] Montenegro,[9] and the Republic of Kosovo.[10] Bosnian uses both Latin and Cyrillic alphabet,[Note 1] with Latin in everyday use.[11] It is notable among the varieties of Serbo-Croatian for a number of Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Persian loanwords, largely due to the language's interaction with those cultures through Islamic ties.[12][13][14] Bosnian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin
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Ottoman Conquest Of Bosnia And Herzegovina
The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
was a process that started roughly in 1386, when the first Ottoman attacks on the Kingdom of Bosnia took place. In 1451, more than 65 years after its initial attacks, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
officially established the Bosansko Krajište, an interim borderland military administrative unit, an Ottoman frontier, in parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[1] In 1463, the Kingdom fell to the Ottomans, and this territory came under its firm control. Herzegovina
Herzegovina
fell to the Ottomans in 1482
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Al-Muqaddasi
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (Arabic: محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي‎), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi , (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab
Arab
geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsim fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), and one of the earliest known historical figures to self-identify as a Palestinian during his travels.[1][2]Contents1 Biography 2 References 3 Resources 4 Further reading 5 See alsoBiography[edit]The regions of Islam in the tenth century, based on Al-Maqdisi's workAl-Maqdisi, "the Jerusalemite" was born in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 946 AD. He had the advantage of an excellent education and after having made the Pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
in his twentieth year, determined to devote himself to the study of geography
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Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(/ˌæzərbaɪˈdʒɑːn/ AZ-ər-by-JAHN; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan [ɑzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Respublikası [ɑzæɾbɑjˈd͡ʒɑn ɾespublikɑˈsɯ]), is a country in the South Caucasus
Caucasus
region of Eurasia
Eurasia
at the crossroads of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Asia.[7] It is bound by the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the east, Russia
Russia
to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia
Armenia
to the west and Iran
Iran
to the south
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Camel
Camelus bactrianus Camelus dromedarius Camelus ferus †Camelus gigas (fossil)[1] † Camelus moreli (fossil) †Camelus sivalensis (fossil)[2]SynonymsListCamellus Molina, 1782 Dromedarius Gloger, 1841A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. There are three surviving species of camel: the one-humped dromedary (which makes up 94% of the world's camel population), and the two-humped Bactrian and wild Bactrian species. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock, they provide food (milk and meat) and textiles (fiber and felt from hair)
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Animal Stall
An animal stall is an enclosure housing one or a few animals. Stalls for animals can often be found wherever animals are kept: a horse stable is often a purpose-built and permanent structure. A farmer's barn may be subdivided into animal stalls or pens for cows and other livestock. Horse care[edit] In horse care, the standard dimensions for a "loose box" (UK) or "box stall" (US) vary from 10 by 12 feet (3.0 by 3.7 m) to 14 by 14 feet (4.3 by 4.3 m), depending on local cultural traditions, the breed of horse, gender, and any special needs. Mares with foals often are kept in double stalls. Stallions, kept alone with less access to turnout, are also often given larger quarters. Ponies sometimes are kept in smaller box stalls, sometimes as small as 8 by 8 feet (2.4 m × 2.4 m), and warmbloods or draft horses may need larger ones
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Ritual Purification
Ritual
Ritual
purification is the purification ritual prescribed by a religion by which a person about to perform some ritual is considered to be free of uncleanliness, especially prior to the worship of a deity, and ritual purity is a state of ritual cleanliness. Ritual purification may also apply to objects and places. Ritual uncleanliness is not identical with ordinary physical impurity, such as dirt stains; nevertheless, body fluids are generally considered ritually unclean. Most of these rituals existed long before the germ theory of disease, and figure prominently from the earliest known religious systems of the Ancient Near East
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Wudu
Wuḍūʾ (Arabic: الوضوء‎ al-wuḍūʼ [wʊˈdˤuːʔ]) is the Islamic procedure for washing parts of the body, a type of ritual purification. Wudu
Wudu
involves washing the hands, mouth, nostrils, arms, head and feet with water and is an important part of ritual purity in Islam
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Ghusl
Ghusl
Ghusl
(Arabic: غسل‎ Ġusl , IPA: [ˈɣʊsl]) is an Arabic term referring to the full-body ritual purification mandatory before the performance of various rituals and prayers, for any adult Muslim after having sexual intercourse, ejaculation[1][2] or completion of the menstrual cycle.[3] The washing is also recommended but not required (i.e. it is mustahabb) before Jumu'ah[4] and Eid[5] prayers, before entering the ihram in preparation for Hajj, after having lost consciousness and after formally converting
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