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Caramelization
Caramelization
Caramelization
is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color. The brown colours are produced by three groups of polymers: caramelans (C24H36O18), caramelens (C36H50O25), and caramelins (C125H188O80). As the process occurs, volatile chemicals such as diacetyl are released, producing the characteristic caramel flavor.[1] Like the Maillard reaction, caramelization is a type of non-enzymatic browning
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Mirepoix (cuisine)
A mirepoix (/mɪərˈpwɑː/ meer-PWAH; French pronunciation: ​[miʁˈpwa]) is diced vegetables, cooked for a long time on a gentle heat without colour or browning, usually with butter or other fat or oil. It is not sautéed or otherwise hard cooked, the intention being to sweeten rather than caramelise. Further cooking, often with the addition of tomato purée, creates a darkened brown mixture called pincage. Where the flavour base is not pre-cooked the constituent vegetables may be cut to a larger size depending on the overall cooking time for the dish
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garb
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Polymer
A polymer (/ˈpɒlɪmər/;[2][3] Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Because of their broad range of properties,[4] both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life.[5] Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA
DNA
and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers
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Galactose
Galactose
Galactose
(galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.[2] It is a C-4 epimer of glucose.[3] Galactan is a polymeric form of galactose found in hemicellulose, and forming the core of the galactans, a class of natural polymeric carbohydrates.[4]Contents1 Etymology 2 Structure and isomerism 3 Relationship to lactose 4 Metabolism 5 Sources 6 Clinical significance 7 History 8 See also 9 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word galactose was coined by Charles Weissman[5] in the mid 19th century and is derived from Greek galaktos (milk) and the generic chemical suffix for sugars -ose.[6] Structure and isomerism[edit] Galactose
Galactose
exists in both open-chain and cyclic form
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Maltose
Maltose
Maltose
(/ˈmɔːltoʊs/[2] or /ˈmɔːltoʊz/[3]), also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose
Maltose
is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose
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PH
In chemistry, pH (/piːˈeɪtʃ/) (potential of hydrogen) is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions. More precisely it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion.[1] Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic
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Confiture De Lait
Confiture de lait (French pronunciation: ​[kɔ̃fityʁ dəlɛ]) is a thick, sweet caramel sauce prepared from milk and sugar. It is a specialty of the Normandy
Normandy
region of France, but it can be found throughout the country. It is very similar to spreadable types of dulce de leche. Preparation of confiture de lait involves mixing whole milk with one half its weight in sugar, followed by brief boiling of the mixture and several hours of cooking over low heat. The result is a smooth, caramelized sauce with a medium brown color, thick enough to be eaten with a spoon. Confiture de lait is used as a sweet condiment or spread for bread or pastries, or as an accompaniment for various other foods
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Cola
Cola
Cola
is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink, made from ingredients that contain caffeine from the kola nut and non-cocaine derivatives from coca leaves, flavored with vanilla and other ingredients. Most colas now use other flavoring (and caffeinating) ingredients with a similar taste. Colas became popular worldwide after pharmacist John Pemberton invented Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
in 1886.[1] His non-alcoholic recipe was inspired by the coca wine of pharmacist Angelo Mariani, created in 1863.[1] Modern colas usually contain caramel color, caffeine, and sweeteners such as sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. They now come in numerous different brands. Among them, the most popular are Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
and Pepsi-Cola
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Slate.com
Optional for Slate Plus and commenting only (US readers) Metered paywall (non-US readers)Launched 1996; 22 years ago (1996)Current status ActiveSlate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.[2][3] It was created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley, initially under the ownership of Microsoft
Microsoft
as part of MSN. On December 21, 2004, it was purchased by The Washington Post
The Washington Post
Company, later renamed the Graham Holdings Company. Since June 4, 2008, Slate has been managed by The Slate Group, an online publishing entity created by the Graham Holdings Company
Graham Holdings Company
to develop and manage web-only magazines
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Ketose
A ketose is a monosaccharide containing one ketone group per molecule.[1][2] The simplest ketose is dihydroxyacetone, which has only three carbon atoms, and it is the only one with no optical activity
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Dry Roasting
Dry roasting
Dry roasting
is a process by which heat is applied to dry foodstuffs without the use of oil or water as a carrier. Unlike other dry heat methods, dry roasting is used with foods such as nuts and seeds, in addition to some eaten insects such house crickets. Dry roasted foods are stirred as they are roasted to ensure even heating. Dry roasting
Dry roasting
can be done in a frying pan or wok (a common way to prepare spices in some cuisines),[1] or in a specialized roaster (as is used for coffee beans or peanuts). Dry roasting
Dry roasting
changes the chemistry of proteins in the food, changing their flavor, and enhances the scent and taste of some spices
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Hot Salt Frying
Hot salt frying
Hot salt frying
and hot sand frying are cooking techniques used by street-side food vendors in Pakistan, China
China
and India.[1]Contents1 Hot salt frying 2 Hot sand frying 3 See also 4 ReferencesHot salt frying[edit] In Pakistan, hot salt frying is mostly used by street vendors to cook corn. Rock salt
Rock salt
is preheated in a wok. Either the whole corn or individual kernels are buried in the salt and occasionally turned. Coarse sea salt is placed in a large wok and heated to a high temperature
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Grilling
Grilling
Grilling
is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below.[1] Grilling
Grilling
usually involves a significant amount of direct, radiant heat, and tends to be used for cooking meat and vegetables quickly. Food to be grilled is cooked on a grill (an open wire grid such as a gridiron with a heat source above or below), a grill pan (similar to a frying pan, but with raised ridges to mimic the wires of an open grill), or griddle (a flat plate heated from below).[2] Heat transfer to the food when using a grill is primarily through thermal radiation. Heat transfer when using a grill pan or griddle is by direct conduction
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Rotisserie
Rotisserie
Rotisserie
is a style of roasting where meat is skewered on a spit – a long solid rod used to hold food while it is being cooked over a fire in a fireplace or over a campfire, or roasted in an oven. This method is generally used for cooking large joints of meat or entire animals, such as pigs or turkeys. The rotation cooks the meat evenly in its own juices and allows easy access for continuous self-basting.Contents1 History 2 Horizontal rotisserie 3 Vertical rotisserie 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]Spitted fowl are rotated by a hand crank and basted with a long-handled spoon in this illustration from the Romance of Alexander, Bruges, 1338-44 (Bodleian Library)In medieval cuisine and early modern kitchens, the spit was the preferred way of cooking meat in a large household
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