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Caramel Color
Caramel color
Caramel color
or caramel coloring is a water-soluble food coloring. It is made by heat treatment of carbohydrates, in general in the presence of acids, alkalis, or salts, in a process called caramelization. It is more fully oxidized than caramel candy, and has an odor of burnt sugar and a somewhat bitter taste. Its color ranges from pale yellow to amber to dark brown. Caramel color
Caramel color
is one of the oldest and most widely used food colorings for enhancing naturally occurring colors, correcting natural variations in color, and replacing color that is lost to light degradation during food processing and storage.[1] The use of caramel color as a food additive in the brewing industry in the 19th century is the first recorded instance of it being manufactured and used on a wide scale
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Cola
Cola
Cola
is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink, made from ingredients that contain caffeine from the kola nut and non-cocaine derivatives from coca leaves, flavored with vanilla and other ingredients. Most colas now use other flavoring (and caffeinating) ingredients with a similar taste. Colas became popular worldwide after pharmacist John Pemberton invented Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
in 1886.[1] His non-alcoholic recipe was inspired by the coca wine of pharmacist Angelo Mariani, created in 1863.[1] Modern colas usually contain caramel color, caffeine, and sweeteners such as sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. They now come in numerous different brands. Among them, the most popular are Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
and Pepsi-Cola
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Sodium Carbonate
Sodium
Sodium
carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid. It most commonly occurs as a crystalline decahydrate, which readily effloresces to form a white powder, the monohydrate. Pure sodium carbonate is a white, odorless powder that is hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air). It has a strongly alkaline taste, and forms a moderately basic solution in water. Sodium
Sodium
carbonate is well known domestically for its everyday use as a water softener. Historically it was extracted from the ashes of plants growing in sodium-rich soils, such as vegetation from the Middle East, kelp from Scotland and seaweed from Spain
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Sulfuric Acid
Sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid
(alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4
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Sulfurous Acid
Sulfurous acid
Sulfurous acid
(also sulphurous acid) is the chemical compound with the formula H2SO3. There is no evidence that sulfurous acid exists in solution, but the molecule has been detected in the gas phase.[1] The conjugate bases of this elusive acid are, however, common anions, bisulfite (or hydrogen sulfite) and sulfite
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Phosphoric Acid
Phosphoric acid
Phosphoric acid
(also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. Orthophosphoric acid refers to phosphoric acid, which is the IUPAC name for this compound. The prefix ortho- is used to distinguish the acid from related phosphoric acids, called polyphosphoric acids. Orthophosphoric acid is a non-toxic acid, which, when pure, is a solid at room temperature and pressure. The conjugate base of phosphoric acid is the dihydrogen phosphate ion, H 2PO− 4, which in turn has a conjugate base of hydrogen phosphate, HPO2− 4, which has a conjugate base of phosphate, PO3− 4
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Acetic Acid
Acetamide Acetic anhydride Acetonitrile Acetyl
Acetyl
chloride Ethanol Ethyl acetate Potassium acetate Sodium acetate Thioacetic acidSupplementary data pageStructure and properties Refractive index
Refractive index
(n), Dielectric constant
Dielectric constant
(εr), etc.Thermodynamic dataPhase behaviour solid–liquid–gasSpectral dataUV, IR, NMR, MSExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).N verify (what is YN ?)Infobox references Acetic acid
Acetic acid
/əˈsiːtɪk/, systematically named ethanoic acid /ˌɛθəˈnoʊɪk/, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2). When undiluted, it is sometimes called glacial acetic acid
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Citric Acid
Citric acid
Citric acid
is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C 6H 8O 7. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms. More than a million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. It is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and chelating agent.[7] A citrate is a derivative of citric acid; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution. An example of the former, a salt is trisodium citrate; an ester is triethyl citrate
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Ammonium Hydroxide
Ammonia
Ammonia
solution, also known as ammonia water, ammonical liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water. It can be denoted by the symbols NH3(aq). It is sometimes thought of as a solution of ammonium hydroxide. Although the name ammonium hydroxide suggests an alkali with composition [NH4+][OH−], it is actually impossible to isolate samples of NH4OH
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Sodium Hydroxide
Lye[1][2] Ascarite White caustic Sodium
Sodium
hydrate[3]IdentifiersCAS Number1310-73-2 Y3D model (JSmol)Interactive imageChEBICHEBI:32145 YChemSpider14114 YECHA InfoCard 100.013.805EC Number 215-185-5E number E524 (acidity regulators, ...)Gmelin Reference68430KEGGD01169 YMeSH Sodium+Hydroxide PubChem CID<
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Potassium Hydroxide
Potassium
Potassium
hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash. Along with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), this colorless solid is a prototypical strong base. It has many industrial and niche applications, most of which exploit its corrosive nature and its reactivity toward acids. An estimated 700,000 to 800,000 tonnes were produced in 2005
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Calcium Hydroxide
Calcium
Calcium
hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is obtained when calcium oxide (called lime or quicklime) is mixed, or slaked with water. It has many names including hydrated lime, caustic lime, builders' lime, slack lime, cal, or pickling lime. Calcium
Calcium
hydroxide is used in many applications, including food preparation. Limewater
Limewater
is the common name for a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide.Contents1 Properties 2 Structure, preparation, occurrence 3 Retrograde solubility 4 Uses4.1 Food industry4.1.1 Native American uses 4.1.2 Asian uses5 Health risks 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksProperties[edit] Calcium
Calcium
hydroxide is relatively insoluble in water, with a solubility product Ksp of 5.5 × 10−6
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Ammonium Carbonate
Ammonium carbonate
Ammonium carbonate
is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3. Since it readily degrades to gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide upon heating, it is used as a leavening agent and also as smelling salt. It is also known as baker's ammonia and was a predecessor to the more modern leavening agents baking soda and baking powder. It is a component of what was formerly known as sal volatile and salt of hartshorn.[1]Contents1 Production1.1 Decomposition2 Uses2.1 Leavening agent 2.2 Other uses 2.3 Substitute3 See also 4 ReferencesProduction[edit] Ammonium carbonate
Ammonium carbonate
is produced by combining carbon dioxide and aqueous ammonia. About 80000 tons/year were produced as of 1997.[1] Decomposition[edit] Ammonium carbonate
Ammonium carbonate
slowly decomposes at standard temperature and pressure through two pathways
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Potassium Carbonate
Potassium
Potassium
carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol)[2] which forms a strongly alkaline solution. It can be made as the product of potassium hydroxide's absorbent reaction with carbon dioxide. It is deliquescent, often appearing a damp or wet solid. Potassium
Potassium
carbonate is used in the production of soap and glass.Contents1 History 2 Production 3 Applications 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksHistory[edit] Potassium
Potassium
carbonate is the primary component of potash and the more refined pearl ash or salts of tartar. Historically, pearl ash was created by baking potash in a kiln to remove impurities. The fine, white powder remaining was the pearl ash
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Molasses
Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar. Molasses
Molasses
varies by amount of sugar, method of extraction, and age of plant. Sugarcane
Sugarcane
molasses is primarily used for sweetening and flavoring foods in the United States, Canada, and elsewhere, while sugar beet molasses is foul-smelling and unpalatable, so it is mainly (mostly) used as an animal feed additive in Europe and Russia, where it is chiefly produced. Molasses
Molasses
is a defining component of fine commercial brown sugar.[1] Sweet sorghum
Sweet sorghum
syrup may be colloquially called "sorghum molasses" in the southern United States.[2][3] Similar products include treacle, honey, maple syrup, corn syrup, and invert syrup
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Bicarbonate
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate[2]) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid
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