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Car Classification
Governments and private organizations have developed CAR CLASSIFICATION schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation, description and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide
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Truck Classification
TRUCK CLASSIFICATIONS are typically based upon the maximum loaded weight of the truck (typically using the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and sometimes also the gross trailer weight rating (GTWR)), and can vary among jurisdictions. CONTENTS* 1 United States * 1.1 Table of US GVWR classifications * 1.2 Notes on weight classes * 1.2.1 Class 2 * 1.2.2 Medium duty ton rating * 1.2.3 Class 7 * 1.2.4 Class 8 * 1.2.5 Class 9/Super heavy duty * 2 Canada * 3 European Union * 4 List of truck types * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links UNITED STATESIn the United States , commercial truck classification is determined based on the vehicle's gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). The classes range from 1–8. Trucks are also classified more broadly by the Department of Transportation\'s Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), which groups classes 1–3 as light duty, 4–6 as medium duty, and 7–8 as heavy duty. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has a separate system of emissions classifications for trucks. The United States Census Bureau also assigned classifications in its now-discontinued Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) (formerly Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS))
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Seat Belt
A SEAT BELT (also known as a SEATBELT or SAFETY BELT) is a vehicle safety device designed to secure the occupant of a vehicle against harmful movement that may result during a collision or a sudden stop. A seat belt functions to reduce the likelihood of death or serious injury in a traffic collision by reducing the force of secondary impacts with interior strike hazards, by keeping occupants positioned correctly for maximum effectiveness of the airbag (if equipped) and by preventing occupants being ejected from the vehicle in a crash or if the vehicle rolls over. When in motion, the driver and passengers are travelling at the same speed as the car. If the car suddenly stops or crashes, the driver and passengers continue at the same speed the car was going before it stopped. A seatbelt applies an opposing force to the driver and passengers to prevent them from falling out or making contact with the interior of the car. Seatbelts are considered Primary Restraint Systems (PRS), because of their vital role in occupant safety
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Acriss Car Classification Code
The ACRISS CAR CLASSIFICATION CODE developed and maintained by ACRISS (the Association of Car Rental Industry Systems Standards) and is designed to enable customers and travel professionals to make an informed choice when booking car rental in Europe, Middle East and Africa. ACRISS Members include Avis , Budget , Enterprise , Europcar and Hertz . CONTENTS* 1 ACRISS Car Classification Codes * 1.1 Examples * 2 Sources * 3 External links ACRISS CAR CLASSIFICATION CODESThe code has four letters, each of which represents an attribute of the vehicle
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Insurance Institute For Highway Safety
INSURANCE is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss. An entity which provides insurance is known as an insurer, insurance company, or insurance carrier. A person or entity who buys insurance is known as an insured or policyholder. The insurance transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known relatively small loss in the form of payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurer's promise to compensate the insured in the event of a covered loss. The loss may or may not be financial, but it must be reducible to financial terms, and must involve something in which the insured has an insurable interest established by ownership, possession, or preexisting relationship. The insured receives a contract , called the insurance policy , which details the conditions and circumstances under which the insured will be financially compensated. The amount of money charged by the insurer to the insured for the coverage set forth in the insurance policy is called the premium. If the insured experiences a loss which is potentially covered by the insurance policy, the insured submits a claim to the insurer for processing by a claims adjuster
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National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
The NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION (NHTSA, pronounced "NITS-uh" ) is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. government , part of the Department of Transportation . It describes its mission as "Save lives, prevent injuries, reduce vehicle-related crashes." As part of its activities, NHTSA is charged with writing and enforcing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards as well as regulations for motor vehicle theft resistance and fuel economy , the latter under the rubric of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) system. NHTSA also licenses vehicle manufacturers and importers, allows or blocks the import of vehicles and safety-regulated vehicle parts, administers the vehicle identification number (VIN) system, develops the anthropomorphic dummies used in safety testing, as well as the test protocols themselves, and provides vehicle insurance cost information. The agency has asserted preemptive regulatory authority over greenhouse gas emissions, but this has been disputed by such state regulatory agencies as the California Air Resources Board . Another of NHTSA's major activities is the creation and maintenance of the data files maintained by the National Center for Statistics and Analysis. In particular, the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), has become a resource for traffic safety research not only in the United States, but throughout the world
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Curb Weight
CURB WEIGHT ( American English
American English
) or KERB WEIGHT ( British English
British English
) is the total weight of a vehicle with standard equipment, all necessary operating consumables such as motor oil , transmission oil, coolant , air conditioning refrigerant, and sometimes a full tank of fuel , while not loaded with either passengers or cargo . This definition may differ from definitions used by governmental regulatory agencies or other organizations. For example, many European Union manufacturers include the weight of a 75-kilogram (165 lb) driver to follow European Directive 95/48/EC. Organizations may also define curb weight with fixed levels of fuel and other variables to equalize the value for the comparison of different vehicles. The United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations define curb weight as follows: Curb weightmeans the actual or the manufacturer’s estimated weight of the vehicle in operational status with all standard equipment, and weight of fuel at nominal tank capacity, and the weight of optional equipment computed in accordance with §86.1832–01; incomplete light-duty trucks shall have the curb weight specified by the manufacturer. UNLADEN MASS depends on the manufacturer and can be the same as curb weight, however, it is often the total mass of the car without a driver, fluid or any additional equipment
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Automobile Air Conditioning
AUTOMOBILE AIR CONDITIONING (also called A/C) systems use air conditioning to cool the air in a vehicle. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Chrysler Airtemp * 1.2 Nash integrated system * 1.3 Growth in demand * 1.4 Evaporative cooling * 2 Operating principles * 3 Power consumption * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYA company in New York City in the United States first offered installation of air conditioning for cars in 1933. Most of their customers operated limousines and luxury cars. In 1939, Packard became the first automobile manufacturer to offer an air conditioning unit in its cars. These were manufactured by Bishop and Babcock Co, of Cleveland, Ohio . The "Bishop and Babcock Weather Conditioner" also incorporated a heater. Cars ordered with the new "Weather Conditioner" were shipped from Packard's East Grand Boulevard facility to the B thus, reducing the staleness associated with automotive air conditioning at the time. Instead of plastic tubes mounted on the rear window package shelf as on GM cars, small ducts directed cool air toward the ceiling of the car where it filtered down around the passengers instead of blowing directly on them, a feature that modern cars have lost. Cadillac, Buick , and Oldsmobile added air conditioning as an option on some of their models in the 1953 model year
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Federal Highway Administration
The FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. The agency's major activities are grouped into two "programs," the Federal-aid Highway Program and the Federal Lands Highway Program. Its role had previously been performed by the OFFICE OF ROAD INQUIRY, OFFICE OF PUBLIC ROADS and the BUREAU OF PUBLIC ROADS. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Background * 1.2 Creation * 2 Functions * 3 Organization * 4 Administrators * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYBACKGROUNDThe organization has several predecessor organizations and a complicated history. The Office of Road Inquiry (ORI) was founded in 1893. In 1905 that organization's name was changed to the Office of Public Roads (OPR) which became a division of the United States Department of Agriculture . The name was changed again to the Bureau of Public Roads in 1915 and to the Public Roads Administration (PRA) in 1939. It was then shifted to the Federal Works Agency which was abolished in 1949 when its name reverted to Bureau of Public Roads under the Department of Commerce . With the coming of the bicycle in the 1890s, interest grew regarding the improvement of streets and roads in America. The traditional method of putting the burden on maintaining roads on local landowners was increasingly inadequate
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Toll Road
A TOLL ROAD, also known as a TURNPIKE or TOLLWAY, is a public or private roadway for which a fee (or _toll _) is assessed for passage. It is a form of road pricing typically implemented to help recoup the cost of road construction and maintenance . Toll roads in some form have existed since antiquity , collecting their fees from passing travellers on foot, wagon or horseback; but their prominence increased with the rise of the automobile , and many modern tollways charge fees for motor vehicles exclusively. The amount of the toll usually varies by vehicle type, weight, or number of axles , with freight trucks often charged higher rates than cars . Tolls are collected at points known as toll booths, toll houses , plazas, stations, bars, or gates. Some toll collection points are unmanned and the user deposits money in a machine which opens the gate once the correct toll has been paid. To cut costs and minimise time delay many tolls today are collected by some form of automatic or electronic toll collection equipment which communicates electronically with a toll payer's transponder . Some electronic toll roads also maintain a system of toll booths so people without transponders can still pay the toll, but many newer roads now use automatic number plate recognition to bill drivers who use the road without a transponder, and some older toll roads are being upgraded with such systems
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United States Environmental Protection Agency
The UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress . President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order . The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator , who is appointed by the President and approved by Congress. The current Administrator is Scott Pruitt . The EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is normally given cabinet rank . The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D.C. , regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions , and 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education. It has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U.S. states and the federally recognized tribes . EPA enforcement powers include fines, sanctions , and other measures
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Station Wagon
A STATION WAGON, also called an ESTATE CAR, ESTATE WAGON, or simply WAGON or ESTATE, is an automotive body-style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate ), instead of a trunk lid. The body style transforms a standard three-box design into a two-box design — to include an A, B, and C-pillar , as well as a D-pillar. Station wagons can flexibly reconfigure their interior volume via fold-down rear seats to prioritize either passenger or cargo volume. The American Heritage Dictionary defines a station wagon as "an automobile with one or more rows of folding or removable seats behind the driver and no luggage compartment but an area behind the seats into which suitcases, parcels, etc., can be loaded through a tailgate." When a model range includes multiple body styles, such as sedan, hatchback and station wagon, the models typically share their platform , drivetrain and bodywork forward of the A-pillar. In 1969, Popular Mechanics said, "Station wagon-style ... follows that of the production sedan of which it is the counterpart. Most are on the same wheelbase, offer the same transmission and engine options, and the same comfort and convenience options." Station wagons have evolved from their early use as specialized vehicles to carry people and luggage to and from a train station, and have been marketed worldwide
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the _de facto _ language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas . The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrived in North America during the 17th century, followed by further migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since then, American English has developed into new dialects, in some cases under the influence of West African and Native American languages , German , Dutch , Irish , Spanish , and other languages of successive waves of immigrants to the United States
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British English
BRITISH ENGLISH is the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom . Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective _wee_ is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland , and occasionally Yorkshire , whereas _little_ is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the _Oxford Guide to World English_, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British ' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity". When distinguished from American English , the term "British English" is sometimes used broadly as a synonym for the various varieties of English spoken in some member states of the Commonwealth of Nations
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Australian English
AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH (AUE, EN-AU ) is a major variety of the English language , used throughout Australia
Australia
. Although English has no official status in the Constitution , Australian English is the country's national and _de facto _ official language as it is the first language of the majority of the population . Australian English began to diverge from British English after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles and quickly developed into a distinct variety of English. As a distinct dialect, Australian English differs considerably from other varieties of English in vocabulary , accent , pronunciation , register , grammar and spelling
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