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Car Classification
Governments and private organizations have developed CAR CLASSIFICATION schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation, description and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide
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United States Environmental Protection Agency
The UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress . President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
proposed the establishment of EPA and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order . The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator , who is appointed by the President and approved by Congress. The current Administrator is Scott Pruitt . The EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is normally given cabinet rank . The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions , and 27 laboratories
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Toll Road
A TOLL ROAD, also known as a TURNPIKE or TOLLWAY, is a public or private roadway for which a fee (or toll ) is assessed for passage. It is a form of road pricing typically implemented to help recoup the cost of road construction and maintenance . Toll roads in some form have existed since antiquity , collecting their fees from passing travellers on foot, wagon or horseback; but their prominence increased with the rise of the automobile , and many modern tollways charge fees for motor vehicles exclusively. The amount of the toll usually varies by vehicle type, weight, or number of axles , with freight trucks often charged higher rates than cars . Tolls are collected at points known as toll booths, toll houses , plazas, stations, bars, or gates. Some toll collection points are unmanned and the user deposits money in a machine which opens the gate once the correct toll has been paid
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language
English language
native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the de facto language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas
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Australian English
AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH (AUE, EN-AU ) is a major variety of the English language , used throughout Australia
Australia
. Although English has no official status in the Constitution , Australian English
Australian English
is the country's national and de facto official language as it is the first language of the majority of the population . Australian English
Australian English
began to diverge from British English
British English
after the founding of the Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised as being different from British English
British English
by 1820. It arose from the intermingling of early settlers from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles
British Isles
and quickly developed into a distinct variety of English
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Aixam
AIXAM-MEGA is a French automobile manufacturer based in Aix-les-Bains , Savoie
Savoie
. It was founded in 1983 to make microcars following the acquisition of Arola . On April 11, 2013, US based Polaris Industries announced that it had acquired Aixam-Mega. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Aixam
Aixam
mechanics * 3 Aixam-Mega vehicles * 3.1 Current * 3.2 Former vehicles * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe company can trace its history back to the establishment of Arola in 1975, which was acquired by Aixam
Aixam
in 1983 out of administration. In 1984 Aixam
Aixam
launched the new 325D, followed by the 400D in 1985. In 1992 they started making a range of standard sized cars under the Mega brand, but by 2002 this brand was just being applied to a diesel and electric range of microvans and light utility vehicles
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Motorised Quadricycle
QUADRICYCLES are European vehicle categories of four-wheeled microcars defined by limitations in terms of weight, power and speed. Two categories are defined; knowingly light quadricycles (L6e), and heavy quadricycles (L7e). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Categories * 2.1 Light quadricycles (L6e) * 2.2 Heavy quadricycles (L7e) * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYIn 1992, the European Union
European Union
published Directive 92/61/EEC which considered that quadricycles fell into the same category as mopeds. Framework Directive 2002/24/EC then refined this definition by distinguishing between light and heavy quadricycles (L6e and L7e categories). Furthermore, Directive 2006/126 (3rd Driving Licence Directive) establishes a common framework for light quadricycles driving licences. It imposes the same requirements for light quadricycles as for mopeds, including the driving age, for which it recommends 16 years as a minimum
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Federal Highway Administration
The FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. The agency's major activities are grouped into two "programs," the Federal-aid Highway
Highway
Program and the Federal Lands Highway
Highway
Program. Its role had previously been performed by the OFFICE OF ROAD INQUIRY, OFFICE OF PUBLIC ROADS and the BUREAU OF PUBLIC ROADS. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Background * 1.2 Creation * 2 Functions * 3 Organization * 4 Administrators * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYBACKGROUNDThe organization has several predecessor organizations and a complicated history. The Office of Road Inquiry (ORI) was founded in 1893. In 1905 that organization's name was changed to the Office of Public Roads (OPR) which became a division of the United States Department of Agriculture
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British English
BRITISH ENGLISH is the English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
, and occasionally Yorkshire , whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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Insurance Institute For Highway Safety
The INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY (IIHS) is a U.S. nonprofit organization funded by auto insurers , established in 1959 and headquartered in Arlington, Virginia . It works to reduce the number of motor vehicle crashes, and the rate of injuries and amount of property damage in the crashes that still occur. It carries out research and produces ratings for popular passenger vehicles as well as for certain consumer products such as child car booster seats. It also conducts research on road design and traffic regulations, and has been involved in promoting policy decisions
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National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
The NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION (NHTSA, pronounced "NITS-uh" ) is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. government , part of the Department of Transportation . It describes its mission as "Save lives, prevent injuries, reduce vehicle-related crashes." As part of its activities, NHTSA is charged with writing and enforcing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards as well as regulations for motor vehicle theft resistance and fuel economy , the latter under the rubric of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) system. NHTSA also licenses vehicle manufacturers and importers, allows or blocks the import of vehicles and safety-regulated vehicle parts, administers the vehicle identification number (VIN) system, develops the anthropomorphic dummies used in safety testing, as well as the test protocols themselves, and provides vehicle insurance cost information
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Seat Belt
A SEAT BELT (also known as a SEATBELT or SAFETY BELT) is a vehicle safety device designed to secure the occupant of a vehicle against harmful movement that may result during a collision or a sudden stop. A seat belt functions to reduce the likelihood of death or serious injury in a traffic collision by reducing the force of secondary impacts with interior strike hazards, by keeping occupants positioned correctly for maximum effectiveness of the airbag (if equipped) and by preventing occupants being ejected from the vehicle in a crash or if the vehicle rolls over. When in motion, the driver and passengers are travelling at the same speed as the car. If the car suddenly stops or crashes, the driver and passengers continue at the same speed the car was going before it stopped. A seatbelt applies an opposing force to the driver and passengers to prevent them from falling out or making contact with the interior of the car
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Automobile Air Conditioning
AUTOMOBILE AIR CONDITIONING (also called A/C) systems use air conditioning to cool the air in a vehicle. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Chrysler Airtemp
Airtemp
* 1.2 Nash integrated system * 1.3 Growth in demand * 1.4 Evaporative cooling * 2 Operating principles * 3 Power consumption * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYA company in New York City
New York City
in the United States first offered installation of air conditioning for cars in 1933. Most of their customers operated limousines and luxury cars. In 1939, Packard
Packard
became the first automobile manufacturer to offer an air conditioning unit in its cars. These were manufactured by Bishop and Babcock Co, of Cleveland, Ohio
Cleveland, Ohio
. The "Bishop and Babcock Weather Conditioner" also incorporated a heater
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Curb Weight
CURB WEIGHT ( American English
American English
) or KERB WEIGHT ( British English
British English
) is the total weight of a vehicle with standard equipment, all necessary operating consumables such as motor oil , transmission oil, coolant , air conditioning refrigerant, and sometimes a full tank of fuel , while not loaded with either passengers or cargo . This definition may differ from definitions used by governmental regulatory agencies or other organizations. For example, many European Union manufacturers include the weight of a 75-kilogram (165 lb) driver to follow European Directive 95/48/EC. Organizations may also define curb weight with fixed levels of fuel and other variables to equalize the value for the comparison of different vehicles
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Toyota Corolla
The TOYOTA COROLLA is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by Toyota
Toyota
. Introduced in 1966, the Corolla was the best-selling car worldwide by 1974 and has been one of the best-selling cars in the world since then. In 1997, the Corolla became the best selling nameplate in the world , surpassing the Volkswagen Beetle . Toyota
Toyota
reached the milestone of 40 million Corollas sold over eleven generations in July 2013. The series has undergone several major redesigns. The name Corolla is part of Toyota's naming tradition of using names derived from the Toyota
Toyota
Crown for sedans, with "corolla" Latin
Latin
for "small crown". The Corolla has always been exclusive in Japan to Toyota
Toyota
Corolla Store locations, and manufactured in Japan with a twin, called the Toyota
Toyota
Sprinter until 2000
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Honda Civic
The HONDA CIVIC is a line of small cars manufactured by Honda
Honda
. Originally a subcompact , the Civic has gone through several generational changes, becoming both larger and more upmarket and moving into the compact car segment. EPA guidelines for vehicle size class stipulate a car having combined passenger and cargo room of 110 to 119.9 cubic feet (3,110 to 3,400 L) is considered a mid-size car , and as such the tenth generation Civic sedan is technically a small-end mid-size car, although it still competes in the compact class. The Civic coupe is still considered a compact car. The Civic currently falls between the Honda
Honda
Fit and Honda
Honda
Accord . The first Civic was introduced in July 1972 as a two-door model, followed by a three-door hatchback that September
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