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Caput
Caput, a Latin
Latin
word meaning literally "head" and by metonymy "top",[1] has been borrowed in a variety of English words, including capital, captain, and decapitate. The surname Caputo, common in the Campania region of Italy, comes from the appellation used by some Roman military generals. A variant form has surfaced more recently in the title Capo (or Caporegime), the head of La Cosa Nostra. The French language converted 'caput' into chief, chef, and chapitre, later borrowed in English as chapter. The central settlement in an Anglo-Saxon multiple estate was called a caput,[2] (short for caput baroniae, see below)
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Cyclopædia, Or An Universal Dictionary Of Arts And Sciences
Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (two volumes in folio) was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London
London
in 1728, and reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century. The Cyclopaedia was one of the first general encyclopedias to be produced in English
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Melisma
Melisma
Melisma
(Greek: μέλισμα, melisma, song, air, melody; from μέλος, melos, song, melody, plural: melismata) is the singing of a single syllable of text while moving between several different notes in succession. Music sung in this style is referred to as melismatic, as opposed to syllabic, in which each syllable of text is matched to a single note.Contents1 History1.1 General 1.2 Prevalence in popular music (mid 1980s to late 2000s) 1.3 Recent backlash (late 2000s – early 2010s)2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] General[edit] Music of ancient cultures used melismatic techniques to induce a hypnotic trance in the listener,[citation needed] useful for early mystical initiation rites (such as Eleusinian Mysteries[citation needed]) and religious worship. This quality is still found in Arabic music where the scale is said to consist of "quarter tones"
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Plainsong
Plainsong
Plainsong
(also plainchant; Latin: cantus planus) is a body of chants used in the liturgies of the Western Church. Though the Catholic Church (both its Eastern and Western halves) and the Eastern Orthodox churches did not split until long after the origin of plainsong, Byzantine chants are generally not classified as plainsong. Plainsong
Plainsong
is monophonic, consisting of a single, unaccompanied melodic line. Its rhythm is generally freer than the metered rhythm of later Western music.Contents1 History 2 Chant types 3 Modes 4 Example 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]A sample of the Kýrie Eléison (Orbis Factor) from the Liber Usualis, in neume notation. Listen to it interpreted. Plainsong
Plainsong
developed during the earliest centuries of Christianity, influenced possibly by the music of the Jewish synagogue and certainly by the Greek modal system
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger
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Upper Extremity Of Humerus
The upper or proximal extremity of the humerus consists of the bone's large rounded head joined to the body by a constricted portion called the neck, and two eminences, the greater and lesser tubercles.Contents1 Humeral head 2 Anatomical neck 3 Tubercles 4 Bicipital groove 5 Surgical neck 6 Additional images 7 ReferencesHumeral head[edit] The head (caput humeri), is nearly hemispherical in form. It is directed upward, medialward, and a little backward, and articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint). The circumference of its articular surface is slightly constricted and is termed the anatomical neck, in contradistinction to a constriction below the tubercles called the surgical neck which is frequently the seat of fracture
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Literal Translation
Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time (Latin: "verbum pro verbo") with or without conveying the sense of the original whole. In translation studies, "literal translation" denotes technical translation of scientific, technical, technological or legal texts.[1] In translation theory, another term for "literal translation" is "metaphrase"; and for phrasal ("sense") translation — "paraphrase." When considered a bad practice of conveying word by word (lexeme to lexeme, or morpheme to lexeme) translation of non-technical type literal translations has the meaning of mistranslating idioms,[2] for example, or in the context of translating an analytic language to a synthetic language, it renders even the grammar unintelligible. The concept of literal translation may be viewed as an oxymoron (contradiction in terms), given that literal denotes something existing without interpretation, where
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University Of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge
Cambridge
(informally Cambridge
Cambridge
University)[note 1] is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge
Cambridge
is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university.[8] The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
after a dispute with the townspeople.[9] The two medieval universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as "Oxbridge"
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Metonymy
Metonymy (UK: /mɛˈtɒnɪmi/, US: /mɪ-/)[1] is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.[2]Contents1 Etymology 2 Introduction 3 Meaning relationships3.1 Metaphor
Metaphor
and metonymy 3.2 Examples3.2.1 Places and institutions4 Rhetoric
Rhetoric
in ancient history 5 Jakobson, structuralism, and realism 6 See also 7 References7.1 Notes 7.2 Bibliography8 Further readingEtymology[edit] The words metonymy and metonym come from the Greek μετωνυμία, metōnymía, "a change of name", from μετά, metá, "after, beyond", and -ωνυμία, -ōnymía, a suffix that names figures of speech, from ὄνυμα, ónyma or ὄνομα, ónoma, "name".[3] Introduction[edit] Metonymy and related figures of speech are common in everyday speech and writing
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Ephraim Chambers
Chambers may refer to: Places[edit] Canada: Chambers Township, OntarioUnited States: Chambers County, Alabama Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County Chambers, Nebraska Chambers, West Virginia Chambers Township, Holt County, Nebraska
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Hundred (county Division)
A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region. It was formerly used in England, Wales, some parts of the United States, Denmark, Southern Schleswig, Sweden, Finland, Estonia
Estonia
and Norway
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Cephalothorax
The cephalothorax, also called prosoma in some groups, is a tagma of various arthropods, comprising the head and the thorax fused together, as distinct from the abdomen behind.[1] (The terms prosoma and opisthosoma are equivalent to cephalothorax and abdomen in some groups.) The word cephalothorax is derived from the Greek words for head (κεφαλή, kephalé) and thorax (θώραξ, thórax).[2] This fusion of the head and thorax is seen in chelicerates and crustaceans; in other groups, such as the Hexapoda
Hexapoda
(including insects), the head remains free of the thorax.[1] In horseshoe crabs and many crustaceans, a hard shell called the carapace covers the cephalothorax.[3]Contents1 Arachnid anatomy1.1 Fovea 1.2 Clypeus 1.3 Ocularium 1.4 Trident2 ReferencesArachnid anatomy[edit] Fovea[edit] The fovea is the centre of the cephalothorax and is located behind the head (only in spiders).[4] It is often important in identification
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Seat Of Government
The seat of government is (as defined by Brewer's Politics) "the building, complex of buildings or the city from which a government exercises its authority".[1] The national government is usually located in the capital. In most countries, the capital and the seat of government are the same city; for example, Ankara
Ankara
is both the capital and seat of government of Turkey. London
London
is additionally the capital city of both England
England
and the United Kingdom, seating the UK's government. The terms are not completely synonymous, as some countries' seat of government differs from the capital
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Human Settlement
In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. A settlement can range in size from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages, towns and cities
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