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Captorhinidae
See textSynonymsRomeriidae Price, 1937 Cotylosauria Captorhinidae
Captorhinidae
(also known as cotylosaurs) is one of the earliest and most basal reptile families, all members of which are extinct.Contents1 Description 2 Discovery and history 3 Classification3.1 Taxonomy 3.2 Phylogeny4 Paleobiology4.1 Caudal autotomy5 ReferencesDescription[edit]Life restoration of Labidosaurus
Labidosaurus
hamatusCaptorhinids are a clade of small to very large lizard-like reptiles that date from the late Carboniferous
Carboniferous
through the Permian. Their skulls were much stronger than those of their relatives, the Protorothyrididae, and had teeth that were better able to deal with tough plant material
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Pennsylvanian (geology)
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous
Carboniferous
or Late Carboniferous) is in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period. It lasted from roughly 323.2 million years ago to 298.9 million years ago Ma (million years ago). As with most other geochronologic units, the rock beds that define the Pennsylvanian are well identified, but the exact date of the start and end are uncertain by a few hundred thousand years. The Pennsylvanian is named after the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, where the coal-productive beds of this age are widespread.[1] The division between Pennsylvanian and Mississippian comes from North American stratigraphy
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Postcrania
Postcrania (postcranium, adjective: postcranial) in zoology and vertebrate paleontology refers to all or part of the skeleton apart from the skull. Frequently, fossil remains, e.g. of dinosaurs or other extinct tetrapods, consist of partial or isolated skeletal elements; these are referred to as "postcrania". Sometimes, there is disagreement over whether the skull and skeleton belong to the same or different animals. One example is the case of a Cretaceous
Cretaceous
sauropod skull of Nemegtosaurus
Nemegtosaurus
found in association with the postcranial skeleton Opisthocoelicaudia. In Paleoanthropological studies, reconstruction of relationship between various species/remains is considered to be better supported by cranial characters rather than postcranial characters. However, this assumption is largely untested. Notes[edit]This vertebrate anatomy-related article is a stub
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Lopingian
The Permian
Permian
is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic
Triassic
period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era; the following Triassic
Triassic
period belongs to the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era. The concept of the Permian
Permian
was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian
Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea
Pangaea
and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses,[1] in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Panthera leo
Panthera leo
(lion) and Panthera onca
Panthera onca
(jaguar) are two species within the genus Panthera. Panthera
Panthera
is a genus within the family Felidae. The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Llewellyn Ivor Price
Llewellyn Ivor Price (October 9, 1905, Santa Maria – 1980, Rio Grande do Sul) was one of the first Brazilian paleontologists.Contents1 Biography 2 Awards 3 References 4 Additional references 5 External linksBiography[edit] Price's work contributed not only to the development of Brazilian but also to global paleontology. He collected Staurikosaurus, the first dinosaur discovered in Brazil. Son of American parents, he studied chemistry and graduated in zoology and geology in the United States. After being professor at Harvard
Harvard
he returned to Brazil. He died of a heart attack. Awards[edit]In 1980 he was awarded the José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva prize by the Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia.[1]References[edit]Book Os Fascinantes Caminhos da Paleontologia. Author : Antônio Isaia. Publisher Pallotti. (Portuguese) Book: "Cronologia Histórica de Santa Maria e do extinto município de São Martinho." 1787-1933. Vol I
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1937 In Paleontology
Paleontology
Paleontology
or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth
Earth
through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science
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Basal (phylogenetics)
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram. Clade
Clade
C may be described as basal within a larger clade D if its root is directly linked (adjacent) to the root of D. If C is a basal clade within D that has the lowest taxonomic rank of all basal clades within D, C may be described as the basal taxon of that rank within D. While there must always be two or more equally basal clades sprouting from the root of every cladogram, those clades may differ widely in rank[n 1] and/or species diversity. Greater diversification may be associated with more evolutionary innovation, but ancestral characters should not be imputed to the members of a less species-rich basal clade without additional evidence, as there can be no assurance such an assumption is valid.[1][2][3][n 2] In general, clade A is more basal than clade B if B is a subgroup of the sister group of A
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Late Carboniferous
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous
Carboniferous
or Late Carboniferous) is in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period. It lasted from roughly 323.2 million years ago to 298.9 million years ago Ma (million years ago). As with most other geochronologic units, the rock beds that define the Pennsylvanian are well identified, but the exact date of the start and end are uncertain by a few hundred thousand years. The Pennsylvanian is named after the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, where the coal-productive beds of this age are widespread.[1] The division between Pennsylvanian and Mississippian comes from North American stratigraphy
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Skull
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain.[1] The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth.[2] In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision, and fixing the position of the ears to enable sound localisation of the direction and distance of sounds
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Seymouriamorpha
See text. Seymouriamorpha
Seymouriamorpha
were a small but widespread group of limbed vertebrates (tetrapods). They have long been considered reptiliomorphs, and most paleontologists may still accept this point of view, but some analyses suggest that seymouriamorphs are stem-tetrapods (not more closely related to Amniota
Amniota
than to Lissamphibia).[1] Many seymouriamorphs were terrestrial or semi-aquatic. However, aquatic larvae bearing external gills and grooves from the lateral line system have been found, making them unquestionably amphibians. The adults were terrestrial. They ranged from lizard-sized creatures (30 centimeters) to crocodile-sized 150 centimeter long animals. They were reptile-like. If seymouriamorphs are reptiliomorphs, they were the distant relatives of amniotes. Seymouriamorphs form into three main groups, Kotlassiidae, Discosauriscidae, and Seymouriidae, a group that includes the best known genus, Seymouria
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s).[1] A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus. In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name
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Diadectomorpha
See text. Diadectomorpha
Diadectomorpha
are a clade of large reptile-like amphibians that lived in Euramerica
Euramerica
during the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
and Early Permian
Permian
periods and in Asia
Asia
during Late Permian
Permian
(Wuchiapingian),[1] and are very close to the ancestry of the Amniota. They include both large (up to 2 meters long) carnivorous and even larger (to 3 meters) herbivorous forms, some semi-aquatic and others fully terrestrial
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Premaxilla
The premaxilla (or praemaxilla) is one of a pair of small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw of many animals, usually, but not always, bearing teeth. In humans, they are fused with the maxilla and usually termed as the incisive bone. Other terms used for this structure include premaxillary bone or os premaxillare, and intermaxillary bone or os intermaxillare.Contents1 Human anatomy1.1 Embryology2 Evolutionary variation 3 ReferencesHuman anatomy[edit] In humans, the premaxilla is referred to as the incisive bone and is the part of the maxilla which bears the incisor teeth, and encompasses the anterior nasal spine and alar region. In the nasal cavity, the premaxillary element projects higher than the maxillary element behind. The palatal portion of the premaxilla is a bony plate with a generally transverse orientation. The incisive foramen is bound anteriorly and laterally by the premaxilla and posteriorly by the palatine process of the maxilla
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Family (biology)
Family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin
Latin
in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family". What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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