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Cantonese
CANTONESE, or STANDARD CANTONESE, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within the city of Canton (Guangzhou) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue , one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China , it is the main _lingua franca _ of the province of Guangdong and some neighbouring areas such as Guangxi , being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta . It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong and Macau . Cantonese is also widely spoken amongst overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia (most notably in Vietnam and Malaysia , as well as in Singapore and Cambodia to a lesser extent) and throughout the Western world . While the term _Cantonese_ refers narrowly to the prestige variety , it is often used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subdivision of Chinese, including related but largely mutually unintelligible languages such as Taishanese . When Cantonese and the closely-related Yuehai dialects are classified together, there are about 80 million total speakers. Cantonese is viewed as vital part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swathes of southeastern China , Hong Kong and Macau
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Yue Chinese
YUE or YUEH (English: /ˈjuːeɪ/ or /juːˈeɪ/ ; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong
Guangdong
and Guangxi , collectively known as Liangguang . The name CANTONESE is often used for the whole branch, but linguists prefer to reserve that name for the variety of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Canton), Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau
, which is the prestige dialect . Taishanese , from the coastal area of Jiangmen located southwest of Guangzhou, was the language of most of the 19th-century emigrants from Guangdong
Guangdong
to Southeast Asia and North America. Most later migrants have been speakers of Cantonese
Cantonese
. Yue varieties are not mutually intelligible with other varieties of Chinese . They are among the most conservative varieties with regard to the final consonants and tonal categories of Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
, but have lost several distinctions in the initial and medial consonants that other Chinese varieties have retained
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Cantonese (other)
CANTONESE is a language originating in Guangzhou City, Southern China CANTONESE may also refer to: * Yue Chinese , Chinese languages that includes Cantonese * Cantonese cuisine , the cuisine of Guangdong province * Cantonese grammar , the grammar of the Cantonese language * Cantonese opera , a type of Chinese Opera * Cantonese people , the native people of Guangdong and Guangxi * Cantonese pronouns , the pronouns of the Cantonese language * Cantonese Braille , a Cantonese language version of Braille in Hong Kong * Cantonese cancer, one of the many names for Nasopharynx cancer SEE ALSO * Cantopop , Cantonese pop music * Index of Cantonese-related articles , which encompasses Guangdong and Guangxi, the Cantonese people, culture and language This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title CANTONESE. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cantonese_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Traditional Chinese
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan , of Hong Kong and Macau or in the Kangxi Dictionary . The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty , and have been more or less stable since the 5th century (during the Southern and Northern Dynasties .) The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters , a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People\'s Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Taiwan , Hong Kong , and Macau ; as well as in Overseas Chinese communities outside of Southeast Asia, although the number of printed materials in simplified characters is growing in Australia, the US and Canada, targeting or created by new arrivals from mainland China. Currently, a large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both sets
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Simplified Chinese
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; _jiǎnhuàzì_) are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the _Table of General Standard Chinese Characters _ for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters , it is one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore . Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Hong Kong , Macau , and the Republic of China ( Taiwan ). While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups generally retain their use of Simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially (简体字; _ jiǎntǐzì _). The latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China , it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing ) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau , also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan . China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower . China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain . For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties , beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty . Since then, China has then expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times
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Hong Kong
HONG KONG, officially the HONG KONG SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION OF THE PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, is an autonomous territory on the Pearl River Delta of China. It has an area of 1,104 km2 and shares its northern border with the Guangdong Province of Mainland China . With around 7.2 million Hongkongers of various nationalities, Hong Kong is the world\'s fourth most densely populated country or territory . Hong Kong used to be a British colony with the perpetual cession of Hong Kong Island from the Qing Empire after the First Opium War (1839–42). The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and acquired a 99-year lease of the New Territories from 1898. Hong Kong was later occupied by Japan during the Second World War until British control resumed in 1945. The Sino-British Joint Declaration signed between the United Kingdom and China in 1984 paved way for the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997, when it became a special administrative region (SAR) of the Peoples Republic of China with a high degree of autonomy. Under the principle of "one country, two systems ", Hong Kong maintains a separate political and economic system from China
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Macau
MACAU (/məˈkaʊ/ ( listen ); 澳門; 澳门; literally: "Bay Gate"), also spelled MACAO, is an autonomous region on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia
East Asia
. Macau
Macau
is bordered by the city of Zhuhai
Zhuhai
in Mainland China
China
to the north and the Pearl River Delta to the east and south. Hong Kong
Hong Kong
lies about 64 kilometres (40 mi) to its east across the Delta. With a population of 650,900 living in an area of 30.5 km2 (11.8 sq mi), it is the most densely populated region in the world. A former Portuguese colony, it was returned to Chinese sovereignty on 20 December 1999. Macau
Macau
was administered by the Portuguese Empire and its inheritor states from the mid-16th century until late 1999, when it constituted the last remaining European colony in Asia. Portuguese traders first settled in Macau
Macau
in the 1550s. In 1557, Macau
Macau
was leased to Portugal from Ming China
China
as a trading port. The Portuguese Empire administered the city under Chinese authority and sovereignty until 1887, when Macau, through a mutual agreement between the two countries, became a colony. Sovereignty over Macau
Macau
was transferred back to China
China
on 20 December 1999
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Overseas Chinese
OVERSEAS CHINESE (traditional Chinese : 海外華人; simplified Chinese : 海外华人; pinyin : _Hǎiwài Huárén_) are people of Chinese birth or descent who live outside the People\'s Republic of China (the Mainland , Hong Kong , Macau ) and Republic of China (Taiwan) . People of partial Chinese ancestry living outside the Greater China Area may also consider themselves overseas Chinese. Overseas Chinese can be of the Han Chinese ethnic majority, or from any of the other ethnic groups in China . Unlike other countries, overseas Chinese in South Korea are mostly from the Korean ethnic group in China
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Guangdong
GUANGDONG (Chinese : 广东) is a province in South China , located on the South China Sea coast. Traditionally romanised as CANTON or KWANGTUNG, Guangdong surpassed Henan and Sichuan to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census , accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China 's population. The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province at 2015 had 108,500,000 people. Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions , with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. According to state statistics , Guangdong's GDP in 2014 reached RMB 6,779 billion, or US$ 1.104 trillion, making its economy roughly the same size as Mexico. Since 2011, Guangdong has had the highest GDP among all provinces of Mainland China . The province contributes approximately 12% of the PRC's national economic output, and is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of Chinese and foreign corporations
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Guangxi
Coordinates : 23°36′N 108°18′E / 23.6°N 108.3°E / 23.6; 108.3 _ This article MAY BE EXPANDED WITH TEXT TRANSLATED FROM THE CORRESPONDING ARTICLE IN CHINESE. (July 2014)_ Click for important translation instructions. * View a machine-translated version of the Chinese article. * Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English. * Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. * Upon the translation you MUST provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by noting your translation and providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. You should also add to the talk page the template {{Translatedzh广西壮族自治区}}
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Sino-Tibetan Languages
The SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES, in a few sources also known as TIBETO-BURMAN or TRANS-HIMALAYAN, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia , Southeast Asia and South Asia . The family is second only to Indo-European in terms of the number of native speakers. The Sino-Tibetan languages with the most native speakers are the varieties of Chinese (1.3 billion speakers, the most of any language on Earth if counted as a single language), Burmese (33 million), and the Tibetic languages (8 million); but many Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken by small communities in remote mountain areas and as such are poorly documented. Several low-level groupings are well established, but the higher-level structure of the family remains unclear. Although the family is often presented as divided into Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman branches, a common origin of the non- Sinitic languages has never been demonstrated and is rejected by an increasing number of researchers
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Yuehai Dialects
YUEHAI (粵海方言) is the main branch of Yue Chinese
Yue Chinese
, spoken in the Pearl River Delta of the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
, as well as Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
. It is commonly called CANTONESE, though that name is more precisely applied to the Guangzhou dialect of Yuehai. DIALECTSYuehai is divided into four principal dialects, each of which contains various subdialects. Cantonese
Cantonese
is the prestige form . * Guangfu dialects * Guangzhou dialect * Hong Kong- Macau
Macau
dialects * Xiguan dialect * Wuzhou dialect * Tanka dialect * Nan-Pan-Shun/Sanyi dialects (Sam yap) * Nanhai dialect * Jiujiang dialect * Xiqiao dialect * Shunde dialect * Zhongshan dialect * Shiqi dialect * Sanjiao dialect * Guan-Bao dialect * Dongguan dialect * Bao\'an dialect (Waitau)REFERENCES * ^ "Guangfu" (apparently = all of Yuehai) in Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Yuehai". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
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Xiguan Dialect
XIGUAN ACCENT (Chinese : 西關口音), or XIGUAN DIALECT (Chinese : 西關話), is a sub-dialect of the Guangzhou dialect of Cantonese, spoken in Xiguan . Cantonese takes Guangzhou dialect as its standard, and Guangzhou dialect once took Xiguan as its standard. With an increasing number of outsiders moving in, Xiguan dialect can only be heard among the older population, and it is near extinction. The Guangzhouhua Zidian (Chinese : 廣州話字典; literally: "Guangzhou Dialect Dictionary") includes Xiguan alongside Nanhai and Hong Kong . CONTENTS * 1 Speakers * 2 Differences with downtown accent * 2.1 Differences in the pronunciation of some characters * 2.2 Confusion of consonants n & l * 2.3 Consonant ng * 2.4 Vowels i what they are actually speaking with is the relaxed pronunciation (Chinese : 懶音) of Xiguan Dialect. DIFFERENCES WITH DOWNTOWN ACCENTDIFFERENCES IN THE PRONUNCIATION OF SOME CHARACTERS XIGUAN ACCENT DOWNTOWN ACCENT ENGLISH TRANSLATION han3(瞓)覺 (Close to the ancient pronunciation of "睏") fan3(瞓)覺 To sleep ji1(依)家 ji4(而)家 Now ji1(依)個 ni1(呢)個 This, theseCONFUSION OF CONSONANTS N & LDue to Xiguan's near geographical position to Nanhai , the problem of the confusion of consonants n & l consists in both Xiguan Accents and Nanhai Accents. They mispronounce n as l. Nevertheless, compared with Nanhai Accents, this problem is relatively mild
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