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Cantilenae Intelectuales De Phoenice Redivivo
Cantilenae Intelectuales de Phoenice Redivivo or Intellectual Cantilenae is an alchemical book by Michael Maier, published in 1622. It was the final text of Maier's published during his lifetime.[1] His dedication for the book, to Frederick, Prince of Norway is dated August 22, 1662, in Rostock.[1] James Brown Craven described it as "one of the most curious and rare of Maier's books". He knew it only in a 1758 French translation:[2] Michael Maieri Cantilenae Intelectuales de Phoenice Redivivo; ou Chansons Intelectuelles sur la resurection Du Phenix...traduites...par M.L.L.M.. "The title promises much- "Nine Triads of Intellectual Songs on the Resurrection of the Phoenix: or the most precious of all medicines, the Mirror and abridgement of this Universe, proposed less to the ear than to the mind, and presented to the wise as the key of the three impenetrable Secrets of Chemistry."[2] Like in Atalanta Fugiens, Maier has organized his book into musical voices
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Spagyric
A spagyric /spəˈdʒɪrɪk/ is an herbal medicine produced by alchemical procedures. These procedures involve fermentation, distillation, and extraction of mineral components from the ash of the plant. These processes were in use in medieval alchemy generally for the separation and purification of metals from ores (see Calcination), and salts from brines and other aqueous solutions.Contents1 Etymology 2 In practice 3 See also 4 Bibliography 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The word comes from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σπάω spao "to draw out" and ἀγείρω ageiro "to gather".[1][2] It is a term probably first coined by Paracelsus
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Rasayana
Rasāyana, रसायन is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word, with the literal meaning: Path (āyana) of essence (rasa). It is a term that in early ayurvedic medicine means the science of lengthening lifespan, and in later (post 8th-century) works sometimes refers to Indian alchemy. The name of the science of Indian alchemy or proto-chemistry, is more generally "The Science of Mercury", or Rasaśāstra, रसशास्त्र in Sanskrit, Nepali, Marathi, Hindi, Kannada
Kannada
and several other languages. Early Indian alchemical texts discuss the use of prepared forms of mercury or cinnabar (see samskaras)
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Alchemical Symbol
Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century. Although notation like this was mostly standardized, style and symbol varied between alchemists, so this page lists the most common.Contents1 Three primes 2 Four basic elements 3 Seven planetary metals 4 Mundane elements 5 Alchemical compounds 6 Alchemical processes 7 Units 8 Unicode 9 References 10 External linksThree primes[edit] According to Paracelsus
Paracelsus
(1493–1541), the three primes or tria prima – of which material substances are immediately composed – are:[1][2]Mercury (Mind)
Salt (base matter or body) 🜔
🜔
Sulfur
Sulfur
(Spirit) 🜍
🜍
Four basic elements[edit] Main article: Classical elements Western alchemy makes use of the Hellenic elements
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Distillation
Distillation
Distillation
is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation. Distillation
Distillation
may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction. Distillation
Distillation
has many applications
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Fermentation
Fermentation
Fermentation
is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen. The products are organic acids, gases, or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. The science of fermentation is known as zymology. In microorganisms, fermentation is the primary means of producing ATP by the degradation of organic nutrients anaerobically.[1] Humans have used fermentation to produce drinks and beverages since the Neolithic age. For example, fermentation is used for preservation in a process that produces lactic acid as found in such sour foods as pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurt (see fermentation in food processing), as well as for producing alcoholic beverages such as wine (see fermentation in winemaking) and beer
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Filtration
Filtration
Filtration
is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass. The fluid that passes through is called the filtrate.[1] In physical filters oversize solids in the fluid are retained and in biological filters particulates are trapped and ingested and metabolites are retained and removed. However, the separation is not complete; solids will be contaminated with some fluid and filtrate will contain fine particles (depending on the pore size, filter thickness and biological activity). Filtration
Filtration
occurs both in nature and in engineered systems; there are biological, geological, and industrial forms
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Congelation
Congelation is the process by which something congeals, or thickens. This increase in viscosity can be achieved through a reduction in temperature or through chemical reactions. Sometimes the increase in viscosity is great enough to crystallize or solidify the substance in question. In alchemy, congelation is one of the 12 vital processes for transformation to occur.This chemical reaction article is a stub
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Solution
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is commonly the case
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Classical Planets In Western Alchemy
In classical antiquity, the seven classical planets are the seven non-fixed astronomical objects in the sky visible to the naked eye: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The word planet comes from the Greek word πλανήτης, planētēs "wanderer" (short for asteres planetai "wandering stars"), expressing the fact that these objects move across the celestial sphere relative to the fixed stars.[1] The term planet in modern terminology is only applied to natural satellites orbiting the Sun, so that of the seven classical planets, five are planets in the modern sense – the five easily visible to the unaided eye.Contents1 Babylonian astronomy 2 Symbols 3 Planetary hours 4 Alchemy 5 Contemporary astrology5.1 Western astrology 5.2 Indian astrology6 Planets in Chinese astronomy 7 Naked-eye planets 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksBabylonian astronomy[edit] Further information: Babylonian astronomy Babylonians recognized seven planets
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Sublimation (phase Transition)
Sublimation is the phase transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.[1] Sublimation is an endothermic process that occurs at temperatures and pressures below a substance's triple point in its phase diagram, which corresponds to the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid. The reverse process of sublimation is deposition or desublimation, in which a substance passes directly from a gas to a solid phase.[2] Sublimation has also been used as a generic term to describe a solid-to-gas transition (sublimation) followed by a gas-to-solid transition (deposition).[3] At normal pressures, most chemical compounds and elements possess three different states at different temperatures. In these cases, the transition from the solid to the gaseous state requires an intermediate liquid state. The pressure referred to is the partial pressure of the substance, not the total (e.g
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Chinese Alchemy
Chinese alchemy
Chinese alchemy
is an ancient Chinese scientific and technological approach to alchemy, a part of the larger tradition of Taoist body-spirit cultivation developed from the traditional Chinese understanding of medicine and the body. According to original texts such as the Cantong qi, the body is understood as the focus of cosmological processes summarized in the five agents, or wu xing, the observation and cultivation of which leads the practitioner into greater alignment with the operation of the Tao, the great cosmological principle of everything
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Agastya
Agastya
Agastya
was a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.[3][4] In the Indian traditions, he is a noted recluse and an influential scholar in diverse languages of the Indian subcontinent. He and his wife Lopamudra
Lopamudra
are the celebrated authors of hymns 1.165 to 1.191 in the Sanskrit text Rigveda
Rigveda
and other Vedic literature.[4][5][6] Agastya
Agastya
appears in numerous itihasas and puranas (roughly, mythologies and regional epics) including the major Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata.[6][7] He is one of the seven or eight most revered rishis in the Vedic texts,[8] as well as a subject of reverence for being one of the Tamil Siddhar
Siddhar
in the Shaivism
Shaivism
tradition
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Adam McLean
Adam McLean (born 1948, in Glasgow) is a Scottish writer on alchemical texts and symbolism. In 1978 he founded the Hermetic Journal which he published until 1992 during which time he also started publishing the Magnum Opus Hermetic Sourceworks, a series of thirty-nine editions (to 2011) of key source texts of the hermetic tradition.Contents1 Career 2 Influence 3 Bibliography 4 References 5 External linksCareer[edit] McLean developed an interest in alchemy in his youth which has continued throughout his life. Located in Glasgow, McLean accessed the wealth of alchemical texts located in The Ferguson Collection in Glasgow
Glasgow
University Library, the Young Collection also in Glasgow, and the John Read Collection at University of St Andrews
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Bass (voice Type)
A bass (/beɪs/ BAYSS) is a type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types. According to The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, a bass is typically classified as having a vocal range extending from around the second E below middle C to the E above middle C (i.e., E2–E4).[1] Its tessitura, or comfortable range, is normally defined by the outermost lines of the bass clef. Categories of bass voices vary according to national style and classification system. Italians favour subdividing basses into the basso cantante (singing bass), basso buffo ("funny" bass), or the dramatic basso profondo (low bass). The American system[2] identifies the bass-baritone, comic bass, lyric bass, and dramatic bass. The German fach system[3] offers further distinctions: Spielbass (Bassbuffo), Schwerer Spielbass (Schwerer Bassbuffo), Charakterbass (Bassbariton), and Seriöser Bass. These classification systems can overlap
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Tenor
Tenor
Tenor
is a type of classical male singing voice, the vocal range of which is between the countertenor and baritone voice types. The tenor's vocal range (in choral music) lies between C3, the C one octave below middle C, and A4, the A above middle C. In solo work, this range extends up to C5, or "tenor high C". The low extreme for tenors is roughly A♭2 (two A♭s below middle C)
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