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Cannabivarin
Cannabivarin
Cannabivarin
(CBV), also known as cannabivarol, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa. It is an analog of cannabinol (CBN) with the side chain shortened by two methylene bridges (-CH2-). CBV is an oxidation product of tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV, THV).[1]Contents1 Chemistry 2 Legal status2.1 United States3 References 4 See also 5 External linksChemistry[edit] It has no double bond isomers nor stereoisomers. Legal status[edit] It is not scheduled by Convention on Psychotropic Substances. United States[edit] CBV is not scheduled at the federal level in the United States,[2] but it could be considered an analog (of THC), in which case, sales or possession intended for human consumption could be prosecuted under the Federal Analog Act. References[edit]^ Keith Bailey, Denise Gagné (October 1975)
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Preferred IUPAC Name
In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC
IUPAC
name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC
IUPAC
nomenclature. The "preferred IUPAC nomenclature" provides a set of rules for choosing between multiple possibilities in situations where it is important to decide on a unique name. It is intended for use in legal and regulatory situations.[1] Currently, preferred IUPAC
IUPAC
names are written only for part of the organic compounds (see below)
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Oxidation
Redox
Redox
(short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: /ˈrɛdɒks/ redoks or /ˈriːdɒks/ reedoks[1]) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a reduction process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes.[2] Redox
Redox
reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species. The chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced
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N-Arachidonoyl Dopamine
Dopamine
Dopamine
(DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body. It is an amine synthesized by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of its precursor chemical L-DOPA, which is synthesized in the brain and kidneys. Dopamine
Dopamine
is also synthesized in plants and most animals. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine pathways, one of which plays a major role in the motivational component of reward-motivated behavior. The anticipation of most types of rewards increase the level of dopamine in the brain,[2] and many addictive drugs increase dopamine neuronal activity
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2-Oleoylglycerol
2-Oleoylglycerol
2-Oleoylglycerol
(2OG) is a monoacylglycerol that is found in biologic tissues. Its synthesis is derived from diacylglycerol precursors. It is metabolized to oleic acid and glycerol primarily by the enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).[1] In 2011, 2OG was found to be an endogenous ligand to GPR119.[2] 2OG has been shown to increase glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) levels following administration to the small intestine.[2] See also[edit]2-Arachidonoylglycerol JZL184References[edit]^ Dinh, T. P.; Carpenter, D.; Leslie, F. M.; Freund, T. F.; Katona, I.; Sensi, S. L.; Kathuria, S.; Piomelli, D. (2002). "Brain monoglyceride lipase participating in endocannabinoid inactivation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99 (16): 10819–10824. doi:10.1073/pnas.152334899. PMC 125056 . PMID 12136125.  ^ a b Hansen, K. B.; Rosenkilde, M. M.; Knop, F. K.; Wellner, N.; Diep, T
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Endocannabinoid
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system. The endocannabinoid system is involved in regulating a variety of physiological and cognitive processes including fertility,[1] pregnancy,[2] during pre- and postnatal development,[3] appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory, and in mediating the pharmacological effects of cannabis.[4][5] The ECS is also involved in mediating some of the physiological and cognitive effects of voluntary physical exercise in humans and other animals, such as contributing to exercise-induced euphoria as well as modulating locomotor activity and motivational salience for rewards.[6][7][8][9] In humans, the plasma concentration of certain endocannabinoids (i.e., anandamide)
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Yangonin
Yangonin
Yangonin
is one of the six major kavalactones found in the kava plant.[1] It has been shown to possess binding affinity for the cannabinoid receptor CB1 (Ki = 0.72 μM), where it behaves as an agonist.[2] Toxicity[edit] Yangonin
Yangonin
displays marked in vitro toxicity on human hepatocytes with approximately 40% reduction in viability based on an ethidium bromide assay. The predominant mode of cell death turned out to be apoptosis rather than necrosis. No significant changes were observed in glutathione levels.[3] References[edit]^ Malani, Joji (2002-12-03). "Evaluation of the effects of Kava
Kava
on the Liver" (PDF). Fiji School of Medicine. Retrieved 2009-09-04.  ^ Ligresti, A.; Villano, R.; Allarà, M.; Ujváry, I. N.; Di Marzo, V. (2012). "Kavalactones and the endocannabinoid system: The plant-derived yangonin is a novel CB1 receptor ligand". Pharmacological Research
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Gallocatechol
Gallocatechol
Gallocatechol
or gallocatechin (GC) is a flavan-3-ol, a type of chemical compound including catechin, with the gallate residue being in an isomeric trans position. It is one of the antioxidant chemicals found in food. This compound possesses two epimers. The most common, (+)-gallocatechin (GC), CAS number 970-73-0, is found notably in green tea. Other sources of (+)-gallocatechin are bananas,[1] persimmons and pomegranates.[citation needed] The other enantiomer is called (-)-gallocatechin or ent-gallocatechin. It was first isolated from green tea by Michiyo Tsujimura
Michiyo Tsujimura
in 1934.[2] This compound had been shown to have moderate affinity to the human cannabinoid receptor,[3] which may contribute to the health benefits found by consuming green tea. Epigallocatechin
Epigallocatechin
is another type of catechin, with the gallate residue being in an isomeric cis position
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Epigallocatechin Gallate
Epigallocatechin
Epigallocatechin
gallate (EGCG), also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is the ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid, and is a type of catechin. EGCG, the most abundant catechin in tea, is a polyphenol under basic research for its potential to affect human health and disease
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Caryophyllene
Caryophyllene
Caryophyllene
/ˌkærioʊfɪˈliːn/, or (−)-β-caryophyllene, is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of many essential oils, especially clove oil, the oil from the stems and flowers of Syzygium aromaticum
Syzygium aromaticum
(cloves),[3] the essential oil of Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa, rosemary,[4] and hops.[5] It is usually found as a mixture with isocaryophyllene (the cis double bond isomer) and α-humulene (obsolete name: α-caryophyllene), a ring-opened isomer. Caryophyllene is notable for having a cyclobutane ring, as well as a trans-double bond in a 9-membered ring, both rarities in nature. The first total synthesis of caryophyllene in 1964 by E.J. Corey
E.J

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Echinacea
Brauneria Necker ex T.C.Porter & Britton Helichroa Raf. Echinacea
Echinacea
/ˌɛkɪˈneɪʃiə/[1] is a genus, or group of herbaceous flowering plants in the daisy family. The Echinacea
Echinacea
genus has nine species, which are commonly called coneflowers. They are found only in eastern and central North America, where they grow in moist to dry prairies and open wooded areas. They have large, showy heads of composite flowers, blooming from early to late summer. The generic name is derived from the Greek word ἐχῖνος (ekhinos), meaning "hedgehog," due to the spiny central disk. These flowering plants and their parts have different uses. Some species are cultivated in gardens for their showy flowers. Echinacea purpurea
Echinacea purpurea
is used in folk medicine.[2] Two of the species, E. tennesseensis and E
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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Cannabis
Cannabis
Cannabis
(/ˈkænəbɪs/) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized: Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa, Cannabis
Cannabis
indica, and Cannabis
Cannabis
ruderalis; C. ruderalis may be included within C. sativa; or all three may be treated as subspecies of a single species, C. sativa.[2][3][4][1] The genus is indigenous to central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.[5] Cannabis
Cannabis
has long been used for hemp fibre, for hemp oils, for medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Federal Analog Act
The Federal Analogue Act, 21 U.S.C. § 813, is a section of the United States Controlled Substances Act
Controlled Substances Act
passed in 1986 which allowed any chemical "substantially similar" to a controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II to be treated as if it were also listed in those schedules, but only if intended for human consumption. These similar substances are often called designer drugs.Contents1 Definition 2 Case law2.1 United States v. Forbes 2.2 United States v
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Lat
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