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Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol
(CBG) is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in the Cannabis
Cannabis
genus of plants, as well as certain other plants including Helichrysum
Helichrysum
umbraculigerum.[1] CBG is the non-acidic form of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), the parent molecule (“mother cannabinoid”) from which many other cannabinoids are made
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The Anatomical Therapeutic
Therapeutic
Chemical (ATC) Classification System
System
is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976.[1] This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use)
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Sucrose
β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside; β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside; α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranosyl-β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranoside , dodecacarbon monodecahydrate ((2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxapent-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxahexane-3,4,5-triol)IdentifiersCAS Number57-50-1 Y3D model (JSmol)Interactive imageChEBICHEBI:17992 YChEMBLChEMBL253582 YChemSpider5768 YDrugBankDB02772 YECHA InfoCard 100.000.304EC Number 200-334-9IUPHAR/BPS5411 PubChem CID5988
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Ic50
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function. This quantitative measure indicates how much of a particular drug or other substance (inhibitor) is needed to inhibit a given biological process (or component of a process, i.e. an enzyme, cell, cell receptor or microorganism) by half. The values are typically expressed as molar concentration. It is commonly used as a measure of antagonist drug potency in pharmacological research. According to the FDA, IC50
IC50
represents the concentration of a drug that is required for 50% inhibition in vitro.[1] It is comparable to an EC50 for agonist drugs
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The gram (alternative spelling: gramme;[1] SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass. Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre, and at the temperature of melting ice"[2] (later at 4 °C, the temperature of maximum density of water)
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Litre
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l,[1] sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume [2] — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,[3] although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3)
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Glaucoma
Glaucoma
Glaucoma
is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.[1] The most common type is open-angle glaucoma with less common types including closed-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma.[1] Open-angle glaucoma develops slowly over time and there is no pain.[1] Side vision may begin to decrease followed by central vision resulting in blindness if not treated.[1] Closed-angle glaucoma can present gradually or suddenly.[2] The sudden presentation may involve severe eye pain, blurred vision, mid-dilated pupil, redness of the eye, and nausea
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Huntington’s Disease
Huntington's disease
Huntington's disease
(HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.[4] The earliest symptoms are often subtle problems with mood or mental abilities.[1] A general lack of coordination and an unsteady gait often follow.[2] As the disease advances, uncoordinated, jerky body movements become more apparent.[1] Physical abilities gradually worsen until coordinated movement becomes difficult and the person is unable to talk.[1][2] Mental abilities generally decline into dementia.[3] The specific symptoms vary somewhat between people.
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Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis
(MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.[1] This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems.[5][8][9] Specific symptoms can include double vision, blindness in one eye, muscle weakness, trouble with sensation, or trouble with coordination.[1] MS takes several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolate
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
aureus (MRSA) (/ɛmɑːrɛseɪ/ or /ˈmɜːrsə/) is a gram-positive bacterium that is genetically different from other strains of Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
aureus. MRSA is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. MRSA is any strain of S. Aureus that has developed, through horizontal gene transfer and natural selection, multiple drug resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics
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Convention On Psychotropic Substances
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances
Convention on Psychotropic Substances
of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria
Austria
on 21 February 1971. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 did not ban the many newly discovered psychotropics,[1] since its scope was limited to drugs with cannabis, coca, and opium-like effects. During the 1960s such drugs became widely available, and government authorities opposed this for numerous reasons, arguing that along with negative health effects, drug use led to lowered moral standards. The Convention, which contains import and export restrictions and other rules aimed at limiting drug use to scientific and medical purposes, came into force on 16 August 1976. As of 2013, 183 member states are Parties to the treaty
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Lat
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Biosynthesis
Biosynthesis
Biosynthesis
(also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. In biosynthesis, simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. This process often consists of metabolic pathways. Some of these biosynthetic pathways are located within a single cellular organelle, while others involve enzymes that are located within multiple cellular organelles. Examples of these biosynthetic pathways include the production of lipid membrane components and nucleotides. The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. ATP), and catalytic enzymes which may require coenzymes (e.g.NADH, NADPH). These elements create monomers, the building blocks for macromolecules
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IUPAC Nomenclature Of Chemistry
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature. There are two main areas: IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
(Red Book) IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
(Blue Book)This chemistry-related article is a stub
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Polyketide Synthase
Polyketide
Polyketide
synthases (PKSs) are a family of multi-domain enzymes or enzyme complexes that produce polyketides, a large class of secondary metabolites, in bacteria, fungi, plants, and a few animal lineages. The biosyntheses of polyketides share striking similarities with fatty acid biosynthesis.[1][2] The PKS genes for a certain polyketide are usually organized in one operon or in gene clusters.[citation needed]Contents1 Classification 2 Modules and domains 3 Stages 4 Pharmacological relevance 5 Ecological significance 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksClassification[edit] PKSs can
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Condensation Reaction
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation). The reaction may otherwise involve the formation of ammonia, ethanol, or acetic acid.[1] It is a versatile class of reactions that can occur in acidic or basic conditions or in the presence of a catalyst. This class of reactions is a vital part of life as it is essential to the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids and the biosynthesis of fatty acids.[2] Many variations of condensation reactions exist, common examples include the aldol condensation, Claisen condensation, Knoevenagel condensation, and the Dieckman condensation
Dieckman condensation
(intramolecular Claisen condensation).[3] Condensation reaction
Condensation reaction
between two symmetrical aldehydes
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