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Cannabidivarin
Cannabidivarin
Cannabidivarin
(CBDV) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in Cannabis. It is a homolog of cannabidiol (CBD), with the side-chain shortened by two methylene bridges (CH2 units). Plants with relatively high levels of CBDV have been reported in feral populations of C. indica ( = C. sativa ssp. indica var. kafiristanica) from northwest India, and in hashish from Nepal.[1][2] CBDV has anticonvulsant effects.[3] Similarly to CBD, it has 7 double bond isomers and 30 stereoisomers (see: Cannabidiol#Double bond isomers and their stereoisomers). It is not scheduled by Convention on Psychotropic Substances
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The Anatomical Therapeutic
Therapeutic
Chemical (ATC) Classification System
System
is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976.[1] This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics. Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use)
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Side Chain
NotesAn oligomeric branch may be termed a short-chain branch. A polymeric branch may be termed a long-chain branch.[1]In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone. The side chain is a hydrocarbon branching element of a molecule that is attached to a larger hydrocarbon backbone. It is one factor in determining a molecule's properties and reactivity.[2] A side chain is also known as a pendant chain, but a pendant group (side group) has a different definition.Contents1 Conventions 2 History 3 Usage3.1 Organic chemistry 3.2 Biochemistry4 See also 5 ReferencesConventions[edit] The placeholder R is often used as a generic placeholder for alkyl (saturated hydrocarbon) group side chains in chemical structure diagrams
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Caryophyllene
Caryophyllene
Caryophyllene
/ˌkærioʊfɪˈliːn/, or (−)-β-caryophyllene, is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of many essential oils, especially clove oil, the oil from the stems and flowers of Syzygium aromaticum
Syzygium aromaticum
(cloves),[3] the essential oil of Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa, rosemary,[4] and hops.[5] It is usually found as a mixture with isocaryophyllene (the cis double bond isomer) and α-humulene (obsolete name: α-caryophyllene), a ring-opened isomer. Caryophyllene is notable for having a cyclobutane ring, as well as a trans-double bond in a 9-membered ring, both rarities in nature. The first total synthesis of caryophyllene in 1964 by E.J. Corey
E.J

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Echinacea
Brauneria Necker ex T.C.Porter & Britton Helichroa Raf. Echinacea
Echinacea
/ˌɛkɪˈneɪʃiə/[1] is a genus, or group of herbaceous flowering plants in the daisy family. The Echinacea
Echinacea
genus has nine species, which are commonly called coneflowers. They are found only in eastern and central North America, where they grow in moist to dry prairies and open wooded areas. They have large, showy heads of composite flowers, blooming from early to late summer. The generic name is derived from the Greek word ἐχῖνος (ekhinos), meaning "hedgehog," due to the spiny central disk. These flowering plants and their parts have different uses. Some species are cultivated in gardens for their showy flowers. Echinacea purpurea
Echinacea purpurea
is used in folk medicine.[2] Two of the species, E. tennesseensis and E
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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IUPAC Nomenclature Of Chemistry
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature. There are two main areas: IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
(Red Book) IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
(Blue Book)This chemistry-related article is a stub
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie (colloquial)[3][4]Gover
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Epilepsy
Epilepsy
Epilepsy
is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.[10][11] Epileptic seizures
Epileptic seizures
are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable periods to long periods of vigorous shaking.[1] These episodes can result in physica
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GW Pharmaceuticals
GW Pharmaceuticals
GW Pharmaceuticals
is a British biopharmaceutical company known for its multiple sclerosis treatment product nabiximols (brand name, Sativex). Sativex is the first natural cannabis plant derivative to gain market approval in any country.[4] Another cannabis-based product, Epidiolex, for treatment of epilepsy, underwent phase 3 clinical trials in 2015.[5][6]Contents1 History1.1 Background1.1.1 HortaPharm2 Marketed products2.1 Sativex3 Products in development3.1 Epidiolex4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Background[edit] Doctors Geoffrey Guy and Brian Whittle founded GW Pharmaceuticals
GW Pharmaceuticals
in 1998
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Convention On Psychotropic Substances
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances
Convention on Psychotropic Substances
of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria
Austria
on 21 February 1971. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 did not ban the many newly discovered psychotropics,[1] since its scope was limited to drugs with cannabis, coca, and opium-like effects. During the 1960s such drugs became widely available, and government authorities opposed this for numerous reasons, arguing that along with negative health effects, drug use led to lowered moral standards. The Convention, which contains import and export restrictions and other rules aimed at limiting drug use to scientific and medical purposes, came into force on 16 August 1976. As of 2013, 183 member states are Parties to the treaty
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Nepal
Nepal
Nepal
(/nəˈpɔːl/ ( listen);[12] Nepali: नेपाल  Nepāl [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic Republic
Republic
of Nepal
Nepal
(Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl),[13] is a landlocked country in South Asia
South Asia
located in the Himalaya. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area.[2][14] It borders China
China
in the north and India
India
in the south, east, and west while Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan
Bhutan
is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim
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Epigallocatechin Gallate
Epigallocatechin
Epigallocatechin
gallate (EGCG), also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is the ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid, and is a type of catechin. EGCG, the most abundant catechin in tea, is a polyphenol under basic research for its potential to affect human health and disease
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Methylene Bridge
In organic chemistry, a methylene bridge, methylene spacer, or methanediyl group is any part of a molecule with formula -CH 2-; namely, a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms and connected by single bonds to two other distinct atoms in the rest of the molecule. It is the repeating unit in the skeleton of the unbranched alkanes. A methylene bridge can also act as a bidentate ligand joining two metals in a coordination compound, such as titanium and aluminum in Tebbe's reagent.[1] A methylene bridge is often called a methylene group or simply methylene, as in "methylene chloride" (dichloromethane CH 2Cl 2)
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