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Canis Major On The Manuchihr Globe
Falak al-Ma'ali Manuchihr (Persian: فلک‌المعالی منوچهر‎), better known as Manuchihr (died c. 1030), was the ruler of the Ziyarids (1012 at the latest – c. 1030)
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Emir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, ˈmɪər, ˈmɪər/; Arabic language">Arabic: أميرʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira ( Arabic language text" xml:lang="ar">أميرة ʾamīrah)
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Special
Special or the specials or variation, may refer to:

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Ray, Iran
Rey or Ray (pronounced as the English word ‘ray’; Persian: شهر ری‎, Shahr-e-Ray, “City of Ray”), also known as Rhages (/ˈrəz/; Greek: Ῥάγαι, or Europos (Ευρωπός) Rhagai; Latin: Rhagae or Rhaganae) and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County in Tehran Province"> Tehran Province of Iran, and the oldest existing city in the province. Ray today has been absorbed into the Greater Tehran metropolitan area. Ray is connected via the Tehran Metro"> Tehran Metro to the rest of Tehran and has many industries and factories in operation
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Bavandid
The Bavand dynasty (Persian: باوندیان‎) (also spelled Bavend), or simply the Bavandids, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan (Mazandaran) in what is now northern Iran from 651 until 1349, alternating between outright independence and submission as vassals to more powerful regional rulers.

Abu Ja'far Muhammad
Abu Ja'far Muhammad (Persian: ابو جعفر محمد‎), was the ruler of the Bavand dynasty from an unknown date until his capture and defeat by the Kakuyids in 1027.

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Isfahan
Isfahan (Persian: اصفهان‎, translit. Esfahān [esfæˈhɒːn] (About this sound listen)), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province"> Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 kilometres (211 miles) south of Tehran. The Isfahan Region">Greater Isfahan Region had a population of 2,101,220 in the 2016 Census, the third most populous metropolitan area in Iran after Tehran and Mashhad
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Kakuyid
The Kakuyids (also called Kakwayhids, Kakuwayhids or Kakuyah) (Persian: آل کاکویه‎) were a Daylamite dynasty that held power in western Persia, Jibal and Persian Iraq (c. 1008–c. 1051). They later became atabegs (governors) of Yazd, Isfahan and Abarkuh from c. 1051 to 1141
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Muhammad Ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar
Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar (Persian: ابوجعفر دشمنزیار), also known by his laqab of Ala al-Dawla Muhammad (علاء الدوله محمد), was a Daylamite military commander who founded in 1008 the short-lived but important independent Kakuyid dynasty in Jibal. He is also known as Pusar-i Kaku, Ibn Kakuyeh, Ibn Kakuya, and Ibn Kaku, which means maternal uncle in the Deylami language, and is related to the Persian word "kaka". Muhammad died in September 1041 after having carving out a powerful kingdom which included western Persia and Jibal
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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C. E. Bosworth
Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA (29 December 1928 – 28 February 2015) was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies.

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Buyid
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (Persian: آل بویهĀl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin. Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia, it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire. The Buyid dynasty was founded by ' Ali ibn Buya, who in 934 conquered Fars and made Shiraz his capital, while his younger brother Hasan ibn Buya conquered parts of Jibal in the late 930s, and by 943 managed to capture Ray, which he made his capital
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Wilferd Madelung
Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung (born 26 December 1930) is a scholar of Islam. He was born in Stuttgart, Germany, where he completed his early education at Eberhard-Ludwigs-Gymnasium. His family moved to the United States in 1947. He studied at Georgetown University. In 1952, he went to Egypt and stayed there for a year. During his stay, the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, initiated by the Free Officers, occurred. He also met Ihsan Abbas, the famous scholar of Islamic history. On leaving Egypt he went back to Germany and completed his Ph.D in 1957, working with Berthold Spuler (de). In 1958 he was sent to Iraq by the German government to work at its embassy there. Shortly after his arrival in Baghdad, Brigadier Abd al-Karim Qasim overthrew the regime in the bloody military coup known as the 14 July Revolution. Madelung stayed in Iraq two more years
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List Of Kings Of Persia
The following is a list of monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Cyrus the Great in 550 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979. Earlier monarchs in the area of modern-day Iran are listed in: Minor dynasties and vassal monarchs can be found in:

Mardavij
Mardavij (Persian: مرداویج‎; meaning "man assailant"), was a Gilaki prince, who established the Ziyarid dynasty, ruling from 930 to 935. Born to a Zoroastrian family native to Gilan, Mardavij was an anti-Muslim, who sought to revive the Sasanian Empire which was conquered in the 7th century by the Muslims. He first started his career by joining the army of his kinsman Asfar ibn Shiruya. Mardavij, however, later betrayed and killed him, conquering much of Jibal. He then set out to conquer Hamadan, Dinavar and Isfahan from the Abbasid Caliphate, and thereafter declared himself king of Iran, making Isfahan his capital. He then defeated the Daylamite military leader Makan ibn Kaki, and conquered Tabaristan in 932
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Vushmgir
Zahir al-Dawla Vushmgir (Persian: ظهیرالدوله وشمگیر‎), mostly known as Vushmgir (also spelled as Voshmgir, Wushmgir, Wushmagir and Washmgir), was the second Ziyarid Emir who ruled from 935 until his death in December 967. He was a son of Ziyar
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