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Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement
Canada Flight Supplement
(CFS) (French: Supplément de vol Canada) is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP Canada). It is the nation's official airport directory
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Aeronautical Information Publication
In aviation, an Aeronautical Information Publication (or AIP) is defined by the International Civil Aviation
Aviation
Organization as a publication issued by or with the authority of a state and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation.[not verified in body] It is designed to be a manual containing thorough details of regulations, procedures and other information pertinent to flying aircraft in the particular country to which it relates. It is usually issued by or on behalf of the respective civil aviation administration.Contents1 Overview 2 Electronic AIP 3 AIRAC effective dates (28-day cycle) 4 See also 5 References5.1 Notes6 External linksOverview[edit] The structure and contents of AIPs are standardized by international agreement through ICAO. AIPs normally have three parts – GEN (general), ENR (en route) and AD (aerodromes)
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VFR Over-The-Top
VFR over-the-top (OTT) refers to flying over top of clouds in visual flight, rather than with reference to instruments. This is usually done for brief amount of time to avoid weather or turbulence.[1]Contents1 Regulations 2 National differences2.1 United States 2.2 Canada 2.3 Germany3 See also 4 References 5 External linksRegulations[edit] Each nation has specific and often different rules that govern when a pilot is permitted to fly VFR OTT. Most countries have requirements that specify weather minima, aircraft equipment and pilot qualifications.[1] In some countries pilots are required to get an air traffic control (ATC) clearance, or in absence of a controller, advise the nearest flight service station or center. Pilots are required to adhere to VFR minima when climbing and descending over the clouds
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Radio Navigation
Radio
Radio
navigation or radionavigation is the application of radio frequencies to determine a position of an object on the Earth.[1][2] Like radiolocation, it is a type of radiodetermination. The basic principles are measurements from/to electric beacons, especiallydirections, e.g. by bearing, radio phases or interferometry, distances, e.g. ranging by measurement of travel times, partly also velocity, e.g
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Visual Flight Rules
Visual flight rules
Visual flight rules
(VFR) are a set of regulations under which a pilot operates an aircraft in weather conditions generally clear enough to allow the pilot to see where the aircraft is going. Specifically, the weather must be better than basic VFR weather minima, i.e. in visual meteorological conditions (VMC), as specified in the rules of the relevant aviation authority. The pilot must be able to operate the aircraft with visual reference to the ground, and by visually avoiding obstructions and other aircraft.[1] If the weather is below VMC, pilots are required to use instrument flight rules, and operation of the aircraft will primarily be through referencing the instruments rather than visual reference
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Canadian Owners And Pilots Association
The Canadian Owners and Pilots Association
Canadian Owners and Pilots Association
(COPA) is a federally registered not-for-profit association that provides information and advocacy services for Canadian pilots who fly for non-commercial purposes.[1] COPA has about 17,000 members which ranks it as the largest aviation association of any kind in Canada. Its mission is to "Advance, promote and preserve the Canadian freedom to fly".[2]Contents1 History 2 Organization 3 Today 4 Youth flying programs 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] COPA was formed in 1952 by Ottawa
Ottawa
aviators Margaret Carson and John Bogie. They saw the need for an organization to represent the interests of private pilots to the government of Canada. Their model was the US-based Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association
(AOPA) which had been formed 13 years earlier in 1939
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Flight Information Centre
Flight Information Centres (FICs) are centres employing flight service specialists responsible for the management and dissemination of flight safety related information operated by Nav Canada. Nav Canada's FIC and Flight Service Stations (FSS) use a network of Remote Communications Outlets (RCOs) strategically located to provide maximum coverage and assistance to aircraft flying in all areas of Canada. Flight service specialists staff these stations providing essential aviation-related information to support mainly general aviation, commercial and private. Pilots can contact FICs to obtain any pre-flight information required 24 hours a day. The specialist will provide callers with an interpretation of the latest weather reports, forecasts, satellite images and weather radar, copies of the latest Notice To Airmen (NOTAMs), and file, modify, open, or close a flight plan
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NOTAM
A Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) is a notice filed with an aviation authority to alert aircraft pilots of potential hazards along a flight route or at a location that could affect the safety of the flight.[1] NOTAMs are unclassified notices or advisories distributed by means of telecommunication that contain information concerning the establishment, conditions or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel and systems concerned with flight operations.[2] NOTAMs are created and transmitted by government agencies and airport operators under guidelines specified by Annex 15: Aeronautical Information Services of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (CICA). The term NOTAM came into common use rather than the more formal Notice to Airmen following the ratification of the CICA, which came into effect on 4 April 1947
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Canadian Aviation Regulation
The Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) are the rules that govern civil aviation in Canada.[1]Contents1 Establishment 2 Organization 3 Amending the CARs 4 Advisory circulars 5 ReferencesEstablishment[edit] The CARs became law on October 10, 1996 replacing the former Air Regulations and Air Navigation Orders. The authority for the establishment of the CARs is the Aeronautics Act
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Instrument Flight Rules
Instrument flight rules
Instrument flight rules
(IFR) is one of two sets of regulations governing all aspects of civil aviation aircraft operations; the other is visual flight rules (VFR). The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Instrument Flying Handbook defines IFR as: "Rules and regulations established by the FAA to govern flight under conditions in which flight by outside visual reference is not safe
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Hangar
A hangar is a closed building structure to hold aircraft, or spacecraft. Hangars are built of metal, wood and concrete
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Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers (41,100,000 square miles).[2][3] It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia
Eurasia
and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. As one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
in the southwest, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
in the south (other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica)
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Aviation Fuel
Aviation fuel
Aviation fuel
is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft. It is generally of a higher quality than fuels used in less critical applications, such as heating or road transport, and often contains additives to reduce the risk of icing or explosion due to high temperature, among other properties.[1] Most current commercial airlines and military aircraft use jet fuel for maximum fuel efficiency and lowest cost. These aircraft account for the vast majority of aviation fuel refined today, which is also used in diesel aircraft engines. Other aviation fuels available for aircraft are kinds of petroleum spirit used in engines with spark plugs (e.g., piston and Wankel rotary
Wankel rotary
engines).[citation needed] Specific energy is the important criterion in selecting an appropriate fuel to power an aircraft
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Air Traffic Control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control
(ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions, organize and expedite the flow of air traffic, and provide information and other support for pilots.[1] In some countries, ATC plays a security or defensive role, or is operated by the military. To prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. Many aircraft also have collision avoidance systems, which provide additional safety by warning pilots when other aircraft get too close. In many countries, ATC provides services to all private, military, and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace
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Runway
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO), a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft"
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