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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA _ Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare _ (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada "------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen " CAPITAL Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667 LARGEST CITY Toronto OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * English * French ETHNIC GROUPS Ethnic demography * 76.7% White * 14.2% Asian * 4.3% Indigenous * 2.9% Black * 1.2% Latin American * 0.5% Multiracial * 0.3% Other RELIGION List of religion
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Canada (other)
CANADA is a country in North America. CANADA may also refer to: CONTENTS* 1 Places * 1.1 Historical regions now subsumed in the nation of Canada
Canada
* 1.2 Other * 1.2.1 Antarctica * 1.2.2 Australia * 1.2.3 United Kingdom * 1.2.4 United States * 1.2.5 West Bank * 2 Buildings and structures * 3 Music * 4 People * 5 Transportation * 6 Other uses * 7 See also PLACESHISTORICAL REGIONS NOW SUBSUMED IN THE NATION OF CANADA * Canada
Canada
(New France) , a French colony along the St
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Flag Of Canada
The FLAG OF CANADA, often referred to as the CANADIAN FLAG, or unofficially as the MAPLE LEAF and L\'UNIFOLIé (French for "the one-leafed"), is a national flag consisting of a red field with a white square at its centre in the ratio of 1:2:1, in the middle of which is featured a stylized, red, 11-pointed maple leaf charged in the centre. It is the first specified by law for use as the country's national flag. In 1964, Prime Minister
Prime Minister
Lester B. Pearson formed a committee to resolve the ongoing issue of the lack of an official Canadian flag, sparking a serious debate about a flag change to replace the Union Flag . Out of three choices, the maple leaf design by George Stanley , based on the flag of the Royal Military College of Canada , was selected. The flag made its first official appearance on February 15, 1965; the date is now celebrated annually as National Flag of Canada Day . The Canadian Red Ensign was unofficially used since the 1890s and approved by a 1945 Order in Council for use "wherever place or occasion may make it desirable to fly a distinctive Canadian flag". Also, the Royal Union Flag
Union Flag
remains an official flag in Canada. There is no law dictating how the national flag is to be treated
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A Mari Usque Ad Mare
_A MARI USQUE AD MARE_ (English: From Sea to Sea; French : _D'un océan à l'autre_ ; Latin : _A Marī Ūsque Ad Mare_ ) is the Canadian national motto . The phrase comes from the Latin Vulgate translation of Psalm 72 :8 in the Bible : "Et dominabitur a mari usque ad mare, et a flumine usque ad terminos terrae" (King James Bible : "He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth"). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Use * 3 Proposed amendment * 4 References HISTORYThe first recorded use of the phrase to represent Canada was by George Monro Grant , who was Sandford Fleming 's secretary and a Presbyterian minister who used the phrase in his sermons. His great-grandson Michael Ignatieff suggests that Grant used the phrase in a nation-building effort during the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway . The use of the word "dominion" in the verse reflected the adoption of the name "Dominion of Canada " for the new country. The motto was first officially used in 1906 on the head of the mace of the new Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan . This phrase was suggested for a national motto by Joseph Pope , then-Under Secretary of State, when the Canadian coat of arms was redesigned in 1921
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus
Plautus
and Terence
Terence

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O Canada
"O CANADA" (French : _Ô Canada_) is the national anthem of Canada . The song was originally commissioned by Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Théodore Robitaille for the 1880 Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony; Calixa Lavallée composed the music, after which, words were written by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier . The lyrics were originally in French; an English version was created in 1906. Robert Stanley Weir wrote in 1908 another English version, which is the official and most popular version, one that is not a literal translation of the French. Weir's lyrics have been revised twice, taking their present form in 1980, but the French lyrics remain unaltered. "O Canada" had served as a _de facto _ national anthem since 1939, officially becoming Canada's national anthem in 1980 when the Act of Parliament making it so received royal assent and became effective on July 1 as part of that year's Dominion Day (now known as Canada Day) celebrations. CONTENTS* 1 Official lyrics * 1.1 Lyric changes * 2 History * 2.1 Second and third stanzas: historical refrain * 2.2 Original French version * 3 Performances * 4 Laws and etiquette * 5 Adaptations * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links OFFICIAL LYRICSThe Queen-in-Council established set lyrics for "O Canada" in Canada's two official languages, English and French
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Royal Anthem
The HONORS MUSIC for a person, office or rank is music played on formal or ceremonial occasions in the presence of the person, office-holder, or rank-holder, especially by a military band . The head of state in many countries is honored with a prescribed piece of music; in some countries the national anthem serves this purpose, while others have a separate ROYAL, PRESIDENTIAL, or, historically, IMPERIAL ANTHEM. Other officials may also have anthems, such as the VICE-REGAL SALUTE in several Commonwealth realms for the governor-general , governor, or lieutenant governor. Ruffles and flourishes may be played instead of, or preceding, honors music. CONTENTS * 1 Current honors music * 2 Historical anthems * 3 Notes * 4 References CURRENT HONORS MUSICCountries where the national anthem is also the royal anthem include Jamaica
Jamaica
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Norfolk Island , Spain
Spain
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Jordan
Jordan
, Brunei
Brunei
and Cambodia
Cambodia
. Additionally, the royal anthems of both Denmark
Denmark
and New Zealand
New Zealand
have co-official status as national anthem along with a separate national anthem
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God Save The Queen
"GOD SAVE THE QUEEN" (alternatively "GOD SAVE THE KING", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms , their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies . The author of the tune is unknown and it may originate in plainchant , but a 1619 attribution to John Bull is sometimes made. It is the national anthem of the United Kingdom and one of two national anthems used by New Zealand since 1977, as well as for several of the UK's territories that have their own additional local anthem. It is also the royal anthem – played specifically in the presence of the monarch – of all the aforementioned countries, as well as Australia (since 1984), Canada (since 1980), Barbados and Tuvalu . In countries not previously part of the British Empire , the tune of "God Save the Queen" has provided the basis for various patriotic songs, though still generally connected with royal ceremony. In the United States , the melody is used for the patriotic song "My Country, \'Tis of Thee ". The melody is also used for the national anthem of Liechtenstein , " Oben am jungen Rhein ". Beyond its first verse, which is consistent, "God Save the Queen/King" has many historic and extant versions
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Ottawa
OTTAWA (/ˈɒtəwə/ ( listen ) or /-wɑː/ ; French pronunciation: ​ ) is the capital city of Canada . It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario . Ottawa borders Gatineau , Quebec ; the two form the core of the Ottawa– Gatineau census metropolitan area (CMA) and the National Capital Region (NCR). As of 2016 Ottawa has a city population of 934,243 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown , and incorporated as "Ottawa" in 1855, the city has evolved into the political and technological centre of Canada. Its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were ultimately replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which significantly increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of which is derived from the Algonquin _Odawa_, meaning "to trade". Ottawa is the most educated city in Canada and is home to a number of post-secondary, research, and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre , the National Gallery , and numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in the nation and low unemployment
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Toronto
TORONTO (/təˈrɒntoʊ/ ( listen ), locally /təˈrɒnoʊ/ ( listen )) is a Canadian city and the provincial capital of Ontario
Ontario
. With a city population of 2,731,571 and a metropolitan population of 5,928,040, it is the most populous city and metropolitan area in Canada. A global city , Toronto is a centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural cities in the world. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the area now known as Toronto for thousands of years, with the city itself sitting at the southern terminus of the ancient Toronto Carrying-Place Trail . Permanent European settlement began in the 1790s, after the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase of 1787, when the Mississaugas
Mississaugas
surrendered the area to the British Crown . The British established the town of York , and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada
Canada
. During the War of 1812 , the town was the site of the Battle of York
Battle of York
and suffered heavy damage by U.S. troops . York was renamed and incorporated as the city of Toronto in 1834, and became the capital of the province of Ontario
Ontario
during Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation
in 1867
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Canadian English
CANADIAN ENGLISH (CANE, CE, EN-CA ) is the set of varieties of the English language
English language
native to Canada
Canada
. According to the 2011 census, English was the first language of approximately 19 million Canadians
Canadians
, or 57% of the population; the remainder of the population were native speakers of Canadian French
Canadian French
(22%) or other languages (allophones , 21%). A larger number, 28 million people, reported using English as their dominant language. 82% of Canadians
Canadians
outside the province of Quebec
Quebec
reported speaking English natively, but within Quebec
Quebec
the figure was just 7.7% as most of its residents are native speakers of Quebec
Quebec
French . Canadian English
Canadian English
contains elements of British English and American English , as well as many Canadianisms (meaning 2): elements "distinctively characteristic of Canadian usage". While, broadly speaking, Canadian English
Canadian English
varieties tend to be close to American English varieties in terms of linguistic distance, the precise influence of American English, British English and other unique sources on Canadian English
Canadian English
varieties has been the ongoing focus of systematic studies since the 1950s
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Canadian French
CANADIAN FRENCH (French : _français canadien_) is the various varieties of a French language spoken in Canada. In 2005, the total number of speakers of French in Canada (including two million non-fluent speakers) was 12,000,000. In 2011, French was reported as the mother tongue of more than seven million Canadians, or around 22% of the national population. At the federal level it has official status alongside English . At the provincial level of government, French is the sole official language of Quebec and is one of two official languages of New Brunswick , and is jointly official (derived from its federal legal status) in Nunavut , Yukon , and the Northwest Territories . Government services are offered in French at the provincial level in Manitoba , in certain areas of Ontario (through the French Language Services Act ), and to a variable extent elsewhere. _ New England French _, a variety spoken in parts of New England in the United States, is essentially a variety of Canadian French. CONTENTS* 1 Varieties * 1.1 Sub-varieties * 2 Historical usage * 3 See also * 4 Notes and references * 4.1 Notes * 4.2 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links VARIETIES_ Quebec French _ is spoken in Quebec
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion). Ethnicity is often used synonymously with ambiguous terms such as nation or people . In English, it can also have the connotation of something exotic (cf. " White ethnic ", "ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the founding population of an area was established
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European Canadian
EUROPEAN CANADIANS (also known as EURO-CANADIANS) are Canadians with ancestry from Europe
Europe
. They form the largest panethnic group within Canada. The French were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now Canada. Hélène Desportes is considered the first white child born in New France
New France
. She was born circa 1620, to Pierre Desportes (born Lisieux
Lisieux
, Normandie , France) and Françoise Langlois. In the 2006 census , the largest European ancestry groups were English (21.03%), French (15.82%), Scottish (15.11%), Irish (13.94%), German (10.18%), Italian (4.63%). However, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is "Canadian" (accounting for 32.22% of the population). Since 1996, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry, which likely caused English Canadians , British Canadians and French Canadians to become severely underrepresented. The grouping is similar to that of "American " in neighbouring United States
United States
and is most commonly espoused by European Canadians whose ancestors have been some of the earliest European settlers of what is now Canada, to the point where they no longer feel a connection to their countries of origin
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Asian Canadian
5,011,225 (15,3% of the Canadian population) 2011 National Household Survey REGIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT POPULATIONS Southern Ontario · Lower Mainland British Columbia
British Columbia
· Most urban areas LANGUAGES Canadian English
Canadian English
· Canadian French · Asian languages RELIGION Christianity
Christianity
· Buddhism
Buddhism
/ East Asian religions · Islam
Islam
· Judaism · Hinduism
Hinduism
· Sikhism
Sikhism
· Other RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS Asian Americans
Asian Americans
· British Asian
British Asian
· British East Asian · Asian Australians · Asian New Zealanders · Asian French · Asian people
Asian people
ASIAN CANADIANS refers to Canadians
Canadians
who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia
Asia
or Asian people
Asian people

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