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Calvinism
CALVINISM (also called the REFORMED TRADITION, REFORMED CHRISTIANITY, REFORMED PROTESTANTISM, or the REFORMED FAITH) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians . Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinism differs from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist , theories of worship , and the use of God\'s law for believers , among other things. As declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, a basic principle is that the Bible is to be interpreted by itself, meaning the parts that are harder to understand are examined in the light of other passages where the Bible is more explicit on the matter
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Continental Reformed Church
A CONTINENTAL REFORMED CHURCH is a Reformed
Reformed
church that has its origin in the European continent. Prominent subgroups are the Dutch Reformed
Reformed
, the Swiss Reformed
Reformed
, the French Reformed
Reformed
( Huguenots
Huguenots
), the Hungarian Reformed
Reformed
, and the Waldensian Church in Italy. The term is used to distinguish these churches from Presbyterian
Presbyterian
, Congregational or other Calvinist churches, which can trace their origin to the British Isles or elsewhere in the world. Continental Reformed
Reformed
churches are descended from the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in respective European countries
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Theology Of John Calvin
The theology of John Calvin has been influential in both the development of the system of belief now known as Calvinism and in Protestant thought more generally. There has been disagreement among scholars regarding the degree to which later Calvinism corresponds to Calvin's own theology. _The Encyclopedia of Christianity_ suggests that His theological importance is tied to the attempted systematization of Christian doctrine. In the doctrine of predestination; in his simple, eschatologically grounded distinction between an immanent and a transcendent eternal work of salvation, resting on Christology and the sacraments; and in his emphasis upon the work of the Holy Spirit in producing the obedience of faith in the regenerate (the _tertius usus legis_, or so-called third use of the law), he elaborated the orthodoxy that would have a lasting impact on Reformed theology
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John Calvin
JOHN CALVIN (/ˈkælvɪn/ ; French : _Jean Calvin_, pronounced ; born JEHAN CAUVIN: 10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564) was an influential French theologian , pastor and reformer during the Protestant Reformation . He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism , aspects of which include the doctrines of predestination and of the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation , in which doctrines Calvin was influenced by and elaborated upon the Augustinian and other Christian traditions. Various Congregational , Reformed , and Presbyterian
Presbyterian
churches, which look to Calvin as the chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. Calvin was a tireless polemic and apologetic writer who generated much controversy
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ , who serves as the focal point of the Christian faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians . Christians make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah (the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\' Creed and Nicene Creed . These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered , died , was buried , descended into hell , and rose from the dead, in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins
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Augustine Of Hippo
Catholicism portal Philosophy portal AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO (/ɔːˈɡʌstᵻn/ or /ˈɔːɡəstiːn/ ; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was an early Christian theologian and philosopher whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy . He was the bishop of Hippo Regius in north Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Era . Among his most important works are _The City of God _ and _Confessions ._ According to his contemporary, Jerome , Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith." In his early years, he was influenced by Manichaeism and afterward by the neo- Platonism of Plotinus . After his baptism and conversion to Christianity in 386, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives
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Protestant Reformation
Waldensians · Savonarola · Lollards · Western Schism · Hussites · Northern Renaissance · German mysticism
German mysticism
Start of the
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Five Solae
The FIVE _SOLAE_ (from Latin, _sola_, lit. "alone"; occasionally Anglicized to FIVE _SOLAS_) of the Protestant Reformation are a foundational set of Biblical principles held by theologians and churchmen to be central to the doctrine of salvation as taught by Western Protestantism . Each _sola_ represents a key belief in Protestant
Protestant
Christian faith in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. The Reformers claimed that the Catholic Church, especially its head, the Pope
Pope
, had usurped divine attributes or qualities for the Church and its hierarchy
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Synod Of Dort
The SYNOD OF DORT (also known as the SYNOD OF DORDT or the SYNOD OF DORDRECHT) was an international Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618–1619, by the Dutch Reformed Church , to settle a divisive controversy initiated by the rise of Arminianism . The first meeting was on 13 November 1618 and the final meeting, the 154th, was on 9 May 1619. Voting representatives from eight foreign Reformed churches were also invited. _Dort_ was a contemporary English term for the town of _Dordrecht_ (and it remains the local colloquial pronunciation). In 2014 the first entire critical edition of the Acts and Documents of the Synod was published
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Covenant Theology
COVENANT THEOLOGY (also known as COVENANTALISM, FEDERAL THEOLOGY, or FEDERALISM) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible . It uses the theological concept of a covenant as an organizing principle for Christian theology . The standard form of covenant theology views the history of God's dealings with mankind, from Creation to Fall to Redemption to Consummation , under the framework of three overarching theological covenants: of redemption, works, and grace. These three covenants are called theological because, though not explicitly presented as such in the Bible, they are thought of as theologically implicit , describing and summarizing the wealth of Scriptural data. Historical Reformed systems of thought treat classical covenant theology not merely as a point of doctrine or as a central dogma , but as the structure by which the biblical text organizes itself
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Lord's Supper In Reformed Theology
In Reformed theology
Reformed theology
, the Lord\'s Supper or Eucharist
Eucharist
is a sacrament that spiritually nourishes Christians and strengthens their union with Christ . The outward or physical action of the sacrament is eating bread and drinking wine. Reformed confessions
Reformed confessions
, which are official statements of the beliefs of Reformed churches, teach that Christ's body and blood are really present in the sacrament, but that this presence is communicated in a spiritual manner rather than by his body being physically eaten. The Reformed doctrine of real presence is sometimes called MYSTICAL REAL PRESENCE or SPIRITUAL REAL PRESENCE
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Regulative Principle Of Worship
The REGULATIVE PRINCIPLE OF WORSHIP is a Christian doctrine, held by some Calvinists and Anabaptists , that God commands churches to conduct public services of worship using certain distinct elements affirmatively found in Scripture, and conversely, that God prohibits any and all other practices in public worship. The doctrine further determines these affirmed elements to be those set forth in Scripture by express commands or examples, or if not expressed, those which are implied logically by good and necessary consequence . The regulative principle thus provides a governing concept of worship as obedience to God, identifies the set of specific practical elements constituting obedient worship, and identifies and excludes disobedient practices. The regulative principle of worship is held, practiced, and vigorously maintained by conservative Reformed churches , the Restoration Movement , and other conservative Protestant denominations
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Institutes Of The Christian Religion
_INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION_ ( Latin : _Institutio Christianae Religionis_) is John Calvin 's seminal work of Protestant systematic theology . Highly influential in the Western world and still widely read by theological students today, it was published in Latin in 1536 (at the same time as the Henry VIII of England 's Dissolution of the Monasteries ) and in his native French language in 1541, with the definitive editions appearing in 1559 (Latin) and in 1560 (French). It was a landmark in the elaboration of the French language in the 16th century to become a national language . The book was written as an introductory textbook on the Protestant faith for those with some previous knowledge of theology and covered a broad range of theological topics from the doctrines of church and sacraments to justification by faith alone and Christian liberty
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Geneva Bible
The GENEVA BIBLE is one of the most historically significant translations of the Bible into English, preceding the King James Version by 51 years. It was the primary Bible of 16th-century English Protestantism and was the Bible used by William Shakespeare , Oliver Cromwell , John Knox , John Donne , and John Bunyan , author of _Pilgrim\'s Progress _ (1678). It was one of the Bibles taken to America on the _ Mayflower _ ( Pilgrim Hall Museum and Dr. Jiang have collected several bibles of _Mayflower_ passengers). The Geneva Bible was used by many English Dissenters , and it was still respected by Oliver Cromwell 's soldiers at the time of the English Civil War , in the booklet "Cromwell\'s Soldiers\' Pocket Bible "
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Three Forms Of Unity
The THREE FORMS OF UNITY is a collective name for the Belgic Confession , the Canons of Dort , and the Heidelberg Catechism , which reflect the doctrinal concerns of continental Calvinism and are accepted as official statements of doctrine by many of the Reformed churches . HISTORY The Synod held at Dort From 1618 to 1619 the Dutch government, on behalf of the Dutch Reformed Church , called and convened the Synod of Dort . Dutch delegates, along with twenty-seven Reformed representatives from eight other countries, met at this Synod of Dort , where they collectively summarized their views in what was called the " Canons of Dort ". This same Synod then added these Canons to two other documents, both of which were in common use by the Dutch Church at the time: the Heidelberg Catechism (1563) and the Belgic Confession (1561)
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