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Calque
In linguistics, a calque /kælk/ or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation. Used as a verb, "to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while translating its components so as to create a new lexeme in the target language. "Calque" itself is a loanword from the French noun calque ("tracing; imitation; close copy"); the verb calquer means "to trace; to copy, to imitate closely"; papier calque is "tracing paper".[1] The word "loanword" is itself a calque of the German word Lehnwort, just as "loan translation" is a calque of Lehnübersetzung.[2] Proving that a word is a calque sometimes requires more documentation than does an untranslated loanword because, in some cases, a similar phrase might have arisen in both languages independently
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Japanese Language
Japanese (日本語, Nihongo, [ɲihoŋɡo] or [ɲihoŋŋo] ( listen)) is an East Asian language spoken by about 126 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period
Heian period
(794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese
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Norwegian Language
no – inclusive code Individual codes: nb – Bokmål nn – NynorskISO 639-2nor – inclusive code Individual codes: nob – Bokmål nno – NynorskISO 639-3 nor – inclusive code Individual codes: nob – Bokmål nno – NynorskGlottolog norw1258[2]Linguasphere 52-AAA-ba to -be; 52-AAA-cf to -cgAreas where Norwegian is spoken, including North Dakota
North Dakota
(where 0.4% of the population speaks Norwegian) and Minnesota
Minnesota
(0.1% of the population) (Data: U.S. Census 2000).This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Serbian Language
Serbian (српски / srpski, pronounced [sr̩̂pskiː]) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
language mainly used by Serbs.[8][9][10] It is the official language of Serbia, the territory of Kosovo, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Spanish Language
The Spanish language
Spanish language
(/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen);  Español (help·info)), also called the Castilian language[4] (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen),  castellano (help·info)), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin
Latin
America and Spain. It is usually considered the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[5][6][7][8][9] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Turkish Language
Turkey
Turkey
(official), Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
(official), Cyprus
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Albanian Language
Latin
Latin
(Albanian alphabet) Albanian Braille Greek (Arvanitika)Official statusOfficial language in Albania  Kosovo[a]  Macedonia (partly)[2]Recognised minority language in Italy  Montenegro  Serbia  Croatia  RomaniaRegulated by Officially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of AlbaniaLanguage codesISO 639-1 sqISO 639-2 alb (B) sqi (T)ISO 639-3 sqi – inclusive code Individual codes: aae – Arbëresh aat – Arvanitika aln – Gheg als – ToskGlottolog alba1267[3]Linguasphere 55-AAA-aaa to 55-AAA-ahe (25 varieties) Albanian dialects
Albanian dialects
(The map does not indicate where the language is majority or minority).This article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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Afrikaans Language
Afrikaans
Afrikaans
(/ˌæfrɪˈkɑːns, ˌɑːfri-, -ˈkɑːnz/)[5][6] is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia
Namibia
and, to a lesser extent, Botswana
Botswana
and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular[7][8] of South Holland
South Holland
(Hollandic dialect)[9][10] spoken by the mainly Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it gradually began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century.[11] Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, and was previously referred to as "Cape Dutch" (a term also used to refer collectively to the early Cape settlers) or "kitchen Dutch" (a derogatory term used to refer to Afrikaans
Afrikaans
in its earlier days)
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Armenian Language
Semi-official or unofficial (de facto) status: Georgia (Samtskhe-Javakheti)[a]  Lebanon[b]  Turkey[c]  Iran  United States (California)[d]Regulated by Institute of Language (Armenian National Academy of Sciences)[22]Language codesISO 639-1 hyISO 639-2 arm (B) hye (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: hye – Eastern Armenian hyw – Western Armenian xcl – Classical Armenian axm – Middle ArmenianGlottolog arme1241[23]Linguasphere 57-AAA-aThe Armenian-speaking world:   regions where Armenian is the language of the majorityThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Czech Language
Czech (/tʃɛk/; čeština Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛʃcɪna]), historically also Bohemian[6] (/boʊˈhiːmiən, bə-/;[7] lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language
West Slavic language
of the Czech–Slovak group.[6] Spoken by over 10 million people, it serves as the official language of the Czech Republic. Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree.[8] Like other Slavic languages, Czech is a fusional language with a rich system of morphology and relatively flexible word order. Its vocabulary has been extensively influenced by Latin[9] and German.[10] The Czech–Slovak group developed within West Slavic
West Slavic
in the high medieval period, and the standardization of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerged in the early modern period
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Azerbaijani Language
 Azerbaijan  Russia DagestanRegulated by Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
National Academy of SciencesLanguage codesISO 639-1 azISO 639-2 azeISO 639-3 aze – inclusive code Individual codes: azj – North Azerbaijani azb – South Azerbaijani slq – Salchuq qxq – QashqaiGlottolog azer1255  North Azeri–Salchuq[2] sout2696  South Azeri–Qashqa'i[3]Linguasphere part of 44-AAB-aLocation of Azerbaijani speakers in Transcaucasia   regions where Azerbaijani is the language of the majority   regions where Azerbaijani is the language of a significant minorityThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Belarusian Language
 Belarus   Poland
Poland
(in Gmina Orla, Gmina Narewka, Gmina Czyże, Gmina Hajnówka
Hajnówka
and town of Hajnówka)Collective Security Treaty OrganizationRecognised minority language in Czech Republic[3]  Ukraine[4][5]  Lithuania[citation needed]Regulated by National Academy of Sciences of BelarusLanguage codesISO 639-1 beISO 639-2 belISO 639-3 belGlottolog bela1254[6]Linguasphere 53-AAA-eb < 53-AAA-e (varieties: 53-AAA-eba to 53-AAA-ebg)Belarusian-speaking world Legend: Dark blue - territory, where Belarusian language
Belarusian language
is used chiefly; Light blue - historical range[7]This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Bengali Language
অবহট্টOld BengaliDialectssee Bengali dialectsWriting system Eastern Nagari script
Eastern Nagari script
(Bengali alphabet) Bengali BrailleSigned formsBengali signed forms[4]Official statusOfficial language in Bangladesh   India
India
(in West Bengal, Tripura
Tripura
& Southern Assam)Regulated by Bangla Academy Paschimbanga Bangla AkademiLanguage codesISO 639-1 bnISO 639-2 benISO 639-3 benGlottolog beng1280[5]Linguasphere 59-AAF-uBengali speaking region of South AsiaBengali speakers around the worldThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.This article contains Bengali text
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