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Cairn
A cairn is a human-made pile (or stack) of stones. The word cairn comes from the Scottish Gaelic: càrn [ˈkʰaːrˠn̪ˠ] (plural càirn [ˈkʰaːrˠɲ]).[1] Cairns
Cairns
have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present.A cairn to mark a mountain summit in Graubünden, SwitzerlandIn modern times, cairns are often erected as landmarks, a use they have had since ancient times. However, since prehistory, they have also been built and used as burial monuments; for defense and hunting; for ceremonial purposes, sometimes relating to astronomy; to locate buried items, such as caches of food or objects; and to mark trails, among other purposes. Cairns
Cairns
are used as trail markers in many parts of the world, in uplands, on moorland, on mountaintops, near waterways and on sea cliffs, as well as in barren deserts and tundra
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Arctic
The Arctic
Arctic
(/ˈɑːrktɪk/ or /ˈɑːrtɪk/)[1][Note 1] is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic
Arctic
consists of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska
Alaska
(United States), Northern Canada
Northern Canada
(Canada), Finland, Greenland
Greenland
(Kingdom of Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia
Russia
and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost (permanently frozen underground ice)-containing tundra. Arctic
Arctic
seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places. The Arctic
Arctic
region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems
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Biome
A biome /ˈbaɪoʊm/ is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate.[1][2] "Biome" is a broader term than "habitat"; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats. While a biome can cover large areas, a microbiome is a mix of organisms that coexist in a defined space on a much smaller scale. For example, the human microbiome is the collection of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are present on a human body.[3] A 'biota' is the total collection of organisms of a geographic region or a time period, from local geographic scales and instantaneous temporal scales all the way up to whole-planet and whole-timescale spatiotemporal scales
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Inupiat
The Iñupiat
Iñupiat
(or Inupiaq[2]) are a native Alaskan people, whose traditional territory spans Norton Sound
Norton Sound
on the Bering Sea
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Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Kalaallit
make up the largest group among the Greenlandic Inuit, and are concentrated in Kitaa. It is also a contemporary term in the Greenlandic language
Greenlandic language
for the indigenous people living in Greenland (Greenlandic Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Nunaat).[3] The Kalaallit
Kalaallit
(singular: Kalaalleq[4]) are a part of the Arctic Inuit
Inuit
people. The language spoken by Inuit
Inuit
in Greenland
Greenland
is Kalaallisut. Possibly adapted from the name Skræling,[5] Kalaallit
Kalaallit
historically referred specifically to Western Greenlanders. On the other hand, Northern and Eastern Greenlanders call themselves Inughuit
Inughuit
and Tunumiit, respectively
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Yupik Peoples
The Yupik
Yupik
(/ˈjuːpɪk/) are a group of indigenous or aboriginal peoples of western, southwestern, and southcentral Alaska
Alaska
and the Russian Far East. They are Eskimo
Eskimo
and are related to the Inuit
Inuit
and Iñupiat
Iñupiat
peoples
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Scandinavia
Scandinavia[a] (/ˌskændɪˈneɪviə/ SKAN-dih-NAY-vee-ə) is a region in Northern Europe, characterized by common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages.[2] The term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, but in English usage, it also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
or to the broader region which includes Finland
Finland
and Iceland.[1] This broader region is usually known locally as the Nordic countries.[3] The remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard
Svalbard
and Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
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Alaska
Coordinates: 64°N 150°W / 64°N 150°W / 64; -150[1]State of AlaskaFlag SealNickname(s): The Last FrontierMotto(s): North to the FutureState song(s): "Alaska's Flag"Official language English, Inupiat, Central Siberian Yupik, Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Alutiiq, Aleut, Dena'ina, Deg Xinag, Holikachuk, Koyukon, Upper Kuskokwim, Gwich'in, Lower Tanana, Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Hän, Ahtna, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Coast TsimshianSpoken languages English 86.3% Alaska Native languages 5.2% Tagalog 3.4% Spanish 2.9% Others 2.2%Demonym AlaskanCapital JuneauLargest city AnchorageArea Ranked 1st • Total 663,268 sq mi (1,717,856 km2) • Width 2,261 miles (3,639 km) • Length 1,420 miles
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Greenland
Greenland
Greenland
(Greenlandic: Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Nunaat, pronounced [kalaːɬit nunaːt]; Danish: Grønland, pronounced [ˈɡʁɶnˌlanˀ]) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
between the Arctic
Arctic
and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
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Arctic Circle
The Arctic
Arctic
Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth. It marks the northernmost point at which the noon sun is just visible on the December solstice
December solstice
and the southernmost point at which the midnight sun is just visible on the June solstice. The region north of this circle is known as the Arctic, and the zone just to the south is called the Northern Temperate Zone. As seen from the Arctic, the Sun
Sun
is above the horizon for 24 continuous hours at least once per year (and therefore visible at midnight) and below the horizon for 24 continuous hours at least once per year (and therefore not visible at noon)
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Mount Washington (New Hampshire)
Mount Washington, called Agiocochook by some Native American tribes, is the highest peak in the Northeastern United States
United States
at 6,288.2 ft (1,916.6 m) and the most prominent mountain east of the Mississippi River. The mountain is notorious for its erratic weather. On the afternoon of April 12, 1934, the Mount Washington Observatory
Mount Washington Observatory
recorded a windspeed of 231 miles per hour (372 km/h) at the summit, the world record for most of the 20th century, and still a record for measured wind speeds not involved with a tropical cyclone.[4][a] The mountain is located in the Presidential Range
Presidential Range
of the White Mountains, in the township of Sargent's Purchase, Coös County, New Hampshire
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Canada
Coordinates: 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95CanadaFlagMotto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin) (English: "From Sea to Sea")Anthem: "O Canada"Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"[1]Capital Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667Largest city TorontoOfficial languagesEnglish FrenchEthnic groupsList of ethnicities74.3% European 14.5% Asian 5.1% Indigenous 3.4% Caribbean and Latin American 2.9% African 0.2% Oceanian[2]ReligionList of religions67.2% Christianity 23.9% Non-religious 3.2% Islam 1.5% Hinduism 1.4% Sikhism 1.1% Buddhism 1.0% Judaism 0.6% Other -[3]Demonym CanadianGovernment Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy[4]• MonarchElizabeth II• Governor GeneralJulie Payette• Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau• Chie
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North America
North America
North America
is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3][4] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Northern Europe
Northern Europe
Europe
is the general term for the geographical region in Europe
Europe
that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Nations usually included within this region are Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania, and occasionally Ireland, Britain, northern Germany, northern Belarus
Belarus
and northwest Russia. Narrower definitions may be based on other geographical factors such as climate and ecology. A broader definition would include the area north of the Alps
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Mountain Bike
A mountain bike or mountain bicycle (abbreviated Mtn Bike or MTB[1]) is a bicycle designed for off-road cycling. Mountain bikes share similarities with other bikes, but incorporate features designed to enhance durability and performance in rough terrain. These typically include a front or full suspension, large knobby tires, more durable wheels, more powerful brakes, lower gear ratios for climbing steep grades, and higher gear ratios for going down steep grades.[citation needed] Mountain bikes are typically ridden on mountain trails, singletrack, fire roads, and other unpaved surfaces. This type of terrain commonly has rocks, roots, loose dirt, and steep grades. Many trails have additional TTF's (Technical Trail Features) such as log piles, log rides, rock gardens, skinnies, gap jumps, and wall-rides. Mountain bikes are built to handle these types of terrain and features
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South Africa
[Note 1]11 languagesAfrikaans Northern Sotho English Southern Ndebele Southern Sotho Swazi Tsonga Tswana Venda Xhosa ZuluEthnic groups (2014[3])80.2% Black 8.8% Coloured 8.4% White 2.5% AsianReligion See Religion in South AfricaDemonym South AfricanGovernment Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentCyril Ramaphosa• Deputy PresidentDavid Mabuza• Chairperson of the National Council of ProvincesThandi Modise• Speaker of the National AssemblyBaleka Mbete• Chief JusticeMogoeng MogoengLegislature Parliament• Upper houseNational Council• Lower houseNational AssemblyIndependence from the United Kingdom• Union31 May 1910• Self-governance11 December 1931• Republic31 May 1961•
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