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Caesar (title)
CAESAR (English pl. CAESARS; Latin
Latin
pl. Caesares) is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, the Roman dictator . The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called " Year of the Four Emperors
Year of the Four Emperors
"
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Julius Caesar (play)
The ghost of Caesar
Caesar
taunts Brutus about his imminent defeat. ( Copperplate engraving by Edward Scriven from a painting by Richard Westall : London, 1802.) THE TRAGEDY OF JULIUS CAESAR is a tragedy by William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
, believed to have been written in 1599. It is one of several plays written by Shakespeare
Shakespeare
based on true events from Roman history , which also include Coriolanus
Coriolanus
and Antony and Cleopatra
Antony and Cleopatra
. Although the play is named Julius Caesar, Brutus speaks more than four times as many lines as the title character; and the central psychological drama of the play focuses on Brutus' struggle between the conflicting demands of honor , patriotism , and friendship
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Empire Of Trebizond
The EMPIRE OF TREBIZOND or the TRAPEZUNTINE EMPIRE was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea
Crimea
. Originally formed during a revolt against the usurpation of the imperial throne by the grandsons of Emperor
Emperor
Andronikos I Komnenos , Trebizond (current Trabzon
Trabzon
, Turkey, with which the name of the empire is a cognate) became a Byzantine Greek successor state established after the fall of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire in the Fourth Crusade , along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus . The Emperors of Trebizond pressed their claim on the Imperial throne for decades after the Nicaean reconquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1261. The Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest of the Byzantine successor states
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Magister Equitum
The MAGISTER EQUITUM, in English MASTER OF THE HORSE or MASTER OF THE CAVALRY, was a Roman magistrate appointed as lieutenant to a dictator . His nominal function was to serve as commander of the Roman cavalry in time of war, but just as a dictator could be nominated to respond to other crises, so the magister equitum could operate independently of the cavalry; like the dictator, the appointment of a magister equitum served both military and political purposes. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Nature of the office * 3 History * 4 List of magistri equitum * 5 Notes * 6 References ORIGINIn the time of the Roman Kingdom , the king himself would lead the cavalry into battle, or else delegate this authority to his chief advisor, the Tribune
Tribune
of the Celeres , the cavalry unit that also served as the king's personal bodyguard
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Magister Militum
MAGISTER MILITUM ( Latin
Latin
for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire , dating from the reign of Constantine . Used alone, the term referred to the senior military officer (equivalent to a war theatre commander, the emperor remaining the supreme commander) of the Empire. In Greek sources, the term is translated either as strategos or as stratelates
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Triumvirate
A TRIUMVIRATE ( Latin
Latin
: triumvirātus) is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as TRIUMVIRS ( Latin
Latin
: triumviri). The arrangement can be formal or informal. Though the three are notionally equal, this is rarely the case in reality. The term can also be used to describe a state with three different military leaders who all claim to be the sole leader. In the context of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russia, the term TROIKA (Russian for "group of three") is used for "triumvirate". Another synonym is TRIARCHY
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Mos Maiorum
The MOS MAIORUM ("ancestral custom" or "way of the ancestors," plural mores , cf. English "mores "; maiorum is the genitive plural of "greater" or "elder") is the unwritten code from which the ancient Romans derived their social norms . It is the core concept of Roman traditionalism, distinguished from but in dynamic complement to written law . The mos maiorum was collectively the time-honoured principles, behavioural models, and social practices that affected private, political, and military life in ancient Rome. CONTENTS * 1 Family and society * 2 Tradition and evolution * 3 Values * 3.1 Fides * 3.2 Pietas * 3.3 Religio and cultus * 3.4 Disciplina * 3.5 Gravitas and constantia * 3.6 Virtus * 3.7 Dignitas and auctorias * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References FAMILY AND SOCIETYThe Roman family (the familia, better translated as "household" than "family") was hierarchical, as was Roman society
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Pontifex Maximus
The PONTIFEX MAXIMUS ( Latin
Latin
, literally: "greatest pontiff " or "greatest bridge-builder") was the high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome
Rome
. This was the most important position in the ancient Roman religion , open only to patricians until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. A distinctly religious office under the early Roman Republic , it gradually became politicized until, beginning with Augustus
Augustus
, it was subsumed into the Imperial office. Its last use with reference to the emperors is in inscriptions of Gratian (reigned 375–383) who, however, then decided to omit the words "pontifex maximus" from his title
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Imperium
If Wiktionary
Wiktionary
has a definition already, change this tag to {{TWCleanup2 }} or else consider a soft redirect to Wiktionary
Wiktionary
by replacing the text on this page with {{Wi }}. If Wiktionary
Wiktionary
does not have the definition yet, consider moving the whole article to Wiktionary
Wiktionary
by replacing this tag with the template {{Copy to Wiktionary
Wiktionary
}}. This template will no longer automatically categorize articles as candidates to move to Wiktionary. (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Look up IMPERIUM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.IMPERIUM is a Latin
Latin
word which, in a broad sense, translates roughly as 'power to command'. In ancient Rome
Rome
, different kinds of power or authority were distinguished by different terms
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Julius Caesar
GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR (Classical Latin
Latin
orthography: CAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR, Classical Latin: ; 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC ), mostly known as JULIUS CAESAR (Classical Latin: IVLIVS CAESAR), was a Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latin
Latin
prose . He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus , and Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate , among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero
Cicero

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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium Ravenna
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Decemviri
The DECEMVIRI or DECEMVIRS ( Latin for "ten men") were any of several 10-man commissions established by the Roman Republic . The most important were those of the two DECEMVIRATES, formally the "Decemvirs Writing the Laws with Consular Imperium " ( Latin : Decemviri
Decemviri
Legibus Scribundis Consulari Imperio) who reformed and codified Roman law during the Conflict of the Orders between ancient Rome
Rome
's patrician aristocracy and plebeian commoners . Other decemviri include the " Decemviri
Decemviri
Adjudging Litigation" ( Decemviri
Decemviri
Litibus Iudicandis), the " Decemviri
Decemviri
Making Sacrifices" ( Decemviri
Decemviri
Sacris Faciundis), and the " Decemviri
Decemviri
Distributing Public Lands" (Decemviri Agris Dandis Adsignandis)
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Legatus
A LEGATUS (anglicised as LEGATE) was a general in the Roman army
Roman army
, equivalent to a modern general officer . Being of senatorial rank, his immediate superior was the Proconsul (provincial governor ), and he outranked all military tribunes . In order to command an army independently of the Proconsul, legates were required to be of praetorian rank or higher; a legate could be invested with propraetorian imperium (legatus pro praetore) in his own right. Legates received large shares of the army's booty at the end of a successful campaign, which made the position a lucrative one, so it could often attract even distinguished consuls (e.g., the consul Lucius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
volunteered late in the Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
as a legate under his first cousin once removed , Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
)
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King Of Rome
The KING OF ROME ( Latin
Latin
: Rex Romae) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
. According to legend , the first king of Rome
Rome
was Romulus
Romulus
, who founded the city in 753 BC upon the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
. Seven legendary kings are said to have ruled Rome
Rome
until 509 BC, when the last king was overthrown. These kings ruled for an average of 35 years. The kings after Romulus
Romulus
were not known to be dynasts and no reference is made to the hereditary principle until after the fifth king Tarquinius Priscus . Consequently, some have assumed that the Tarquins and their attempt to institute a hereditary monarchy over this conjectured earlier elective monarchy resulted in the formation of the republic
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Tribuni Militum Consulari Potestate
The TRIBUNI MILITUM CONSULARI POTESTATE ("military tribunes with consular power"), in English commonly also CONSULAR TRIBUNES, were tribunes elected with consular power during the so-called "Conflict of the Orders " in the Roman Republic , starting in 444 BC and then continuously from 408 BC to 394 BC and again from 391 BC to 367 BC. CONTENTS * 1 Origin and dissolution of the office * 2 Consular Tribunes by year * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References ORIGIN AND DISSOLUTION OF THE OFFICEAccording to the histories of Livy and Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
, the magistracy of the tribuni militum consulari potestate was created during the Conflict of the Orders, along with the magistracy of the censor , in order to give the Plebeian order access to higher levels of government without having to reform the office of consul ; plebeians could be elected to the office of Consular Tribune
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Dux
DUX (/dʌks, dʊks/ ; plural: duces) is Latin
Latin
for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge , duce , etc.). During the Roman Republic , dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank. In writing his commentaries on the Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
uses the term only for Celtic generals, with one exception for a Roman commander who held no official rank. CONTENTS* 1 Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* 1.1 Original usage * 1.2 Change in usage * 1.3 The office under the Dominate * 2 Later developments * 3 Post-Roman uses * 3.1 Education * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links ROMAN EMPIRE This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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