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Caesar (title)
CAESAR (English pl. CAESARS; Latin
Latin
pl. Caesares) is a title of imperial character. It derives from the cognomen of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
, the Roman dictator
Roman dictator
. The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about AD 68/69, the so-called " Year of the Four Emperors
Year of the Four Emperors
". CONTENTS * 1 Sole Roman Emperor
Emperor
* 2 Dynastic title * 3 Late Empire * 3.1 The Third Century Crisis * 3.2 Tetrarchy * 3.3 After the Tetrarchy * 4 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* 5 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* 6 Legacy * 6.1 Name * 6.2 Historiography * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography SOLE ROMAN EMPERORFor political and personal reasons Octavian chose to emphasize his relationship with Caesar by styling himself simply " Imperator
Imperator
Caesar" (whereto the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
added the honorific Augustus , "Majestic" or "Venerable," in 27 BC), without any of the other elements of his full name
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Julius Caesar
GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR (Classical Latin orthography: CAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR, Classical Latin: ; 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC ), mostly known as JULIUS CAESAR (Classical Latin: IVLIVS CAESAR), was a Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latin prose . He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire . In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus , and Pompey formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power as _ Populares _ were opposed by the _ Optimates _ within the Roman Senate , among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero . Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars , completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine . Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain . These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome
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Julius Caesar (play)
THE TRAGEDY OF JULIUS CAESAR is a tragedy by William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
, believed to have been written in 1599. It is one of several plays written by Shakespeare
Shakespeare
based on true events from Roman history , which also include Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra . Although the title is Julius Caesar, Brutus speaks more than four times as many lines, and the central psychological drama of the play focuses on Brutus' struggle between the conflicting demands of honor , patriotism , and friendship
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Ancient Rome
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire . Through conquest and assimilation , it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe , Asia Minor , North Africa , and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe . It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece , and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world . Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called _res publica _, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France
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Politics Of Ancient Rome
Various lists regarding the POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS OF ANCIENT ROME are presented. Each entry in a list is a link to a separate article. Categories included are: constitutions (5), laws (5), and legislatures (7); state offices (28) and office holders (6 lists); political factions (3) and social ranks (8). A political glossary (35) of similar construction follows
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Roman Kingdom
The ROMAN KINGDOM, or REGAL PERIOD, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome
Rome
and its territories. Little is certain about the history of the kingdom, as nearly no written records from that time survive, and the histories about it that were written during the Republic and Empire are largely based on legends. However, the history of the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
began with the city's founding , traditionally dated to 753 BC with settlements around the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
along the river Tiber in Central Italy
Italy
, and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic in about 509 BC
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Roman Republic
The ROMAN REPUBLIC ( Latin
Latin
: _RES PUBLICA ROMANA_; Classical Latin: ) was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom , traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city\'s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world . Roman government was headed by two consuls , elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians , Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome
Rome
, and the plebeians , the far more numerous citizen-commoners. Over time, the laws that gave patricians exclusive rights to Rome's highest offices were repealed or weakened, and leading plebeian families became full members of the aristocracy. The leaders of the Republic
Republic
developed a strong tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military and political success inextricably linked
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracuse (663–669, Eastern) LANGUAGES * Latin (official until 610) * Greek (official after 610) * Regional / local languages RELIGION * Before AD 380: Imperial cult -driven polytheism * From AD 380: Christiani
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Empire Of Trebizond
The EMPIRE OF TREBIZOND or the TRAPEZUNTINE EMPIRE was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia
Anatolia
and the southern Crimea
Crimea
. Originally formed during a revolt against the usurpation of the imperial throne by the grandsons of Emperor
Emperor
Andronikos I Komnenos
Andronikos I Komnenos
, Trebizond (current Trabzon , Turkey, with which the name of the empire is a cognate) became a Byzantine Greek successor state established after the fall of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire in the Fourth Crusade , along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus . The Emperors of Trebizond pressed their claim on the Imperial throne for decades after the Nicaean reconquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1261. The Trapezuntine monarchy survived the longest of the Byzantine successor states. The Despotate of Epirus was slowly decimated, and briefly occupied by the restored Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
c. 1340, thereafter becoming a Serbian dependency and later inherited by Italians, ultimately falling to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1479, having long ceased to contest the Byzantine throne
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Principate
The PRINCIPATE is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from the beginning of the reign of Augustus
Augustus
in about 30 BC to the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate
Dominate
. The Principate
Principate
is characterised by the reign of a single emperor (princeps) and an effort on the part of the early emperors, at least, to preserve the illusion of the formal continuance, in some aspects, of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History
History
* 2.1 Redefinition under Vespasian
Vespasian
* 2.2 Dominate
Dominate
* 3 References * 4 Sources ETYMOLOGYIt is etymologically derived from the Latin
Latin
word princeps , meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government . This reflects the principate emperors' assertion that they were merely "first among equals " among the citizens of Rome. HISTORY This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Dominate
The DOMINATE or LATE ROMAN EMPIRE was the "despotic " later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the " Principate ", in the ancient Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. It has traditionally been considered to begin with the commencement of the reign of Diocletian in AD 284, following the Third Century Crisis of AD 235–284, and to end in the west with the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476, while in the east its end is disputed, as either occurring at the close of the reign of Justinian I (AD 565) or of Heraclius (AD 641). In form, the Dominate
Dominate
is considered to have been more authoritarian, less collegiate and more bureaucratic than the Principate from which it emerged
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Timeline Of Roman History
This is a TIMELINE OF ROMAN HISTORY, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
and Republic and the Roman and Byzantine Empires . To read about the background of these events, see Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
and History of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. Following tradition, this timeline marks the deposition of Romulus Augustulus and the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
as the end of Rome
Rome
in the west and east, respectively. See Third Romefor a discussion of claimants to the succession of Rome. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries
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Roman Constitution
The ROMAN CONSTITUTION was an uncodified set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. The Roman constitution was not formal or even official, largely unwritten and constantly evolving. Having those characteristics, it was therefore more like the British and United States
United States
common law system than a sovereign law system like the English Constitutions of Clarendon and Great Charter or the United States
United States
Constitution , even though the constitution's evolution through the years was often directed by passage of new laws and repeal of older ones. Concepts that originated in the Roman constitution live on in both forms of government to this day. Examples include checks and balances, the separation of powers , vetoes , filibusters , quorum requirements , term limits , impeachments , the powers of the purse , and regularly scheduled elections . Even some lesser used modern constitutional concepts, such as the bloc voting found in the electoral college of the United States
United States
, originate from ideas found in the Roman constitution. Over the years, the Roman constitution continuously evolved. By the late 5th century BC, the Constitution of the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
had given way to the Constitution of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic

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Constitution Of The Roman Kingdom
The CONSTITUTION OF THE ROMAN KINGDOM was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles originating mainly through precedent. During the years of the Roman Kingdom , the constitutional arrangement was centered on the king , who had the power to appoint assistants, and delegate to them their specific powers. The Roman Senate , which was dominated by the aristocracy, served as the advisory council to the king. Often, the king asked the Senate to vote on various matters, but he was free to ignore any advice they gave him. The king could also request a vote on various matters by the popular assembly (the " Curiate Assembly "), which he was also free to ignore. The popular assembly functioned as a vehicle through which the People of Rome could express their opinions. In it, the people were organized according to their respective curiae. However, the popular assembly did have other functions. For example, it was a forum used by citizens to hear announcements. It could also serve as a trial court for both civil and criminal matters
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Constitution Of The Roman Republic
The CONSTITUTION OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC was a set of unwritten norms and customs , which together with various written laws , guided the manner by which the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
was governed. The constitution emerged out of that of the Roman kingdom , evolved over the almost five hundred years of the Republic, and was transformed into the constitution of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The Roman republican constitution can be divided into three main branches: * the Assemblies , composed of the people, which served as the supreme repository of political power and had the authority to elect magistrates, accept or reject laws, administer justice, and declare war or peace; * the Senate , which advised the magistrates and the state, acting primarily not on legal authority _per se_, but rather with its influence, and * the magistrates , elected by the people to govern the Republic in their name, holding religious, military, and judicial powers, along with the right to preside over and call upon the assemblies. A complex set of checks and balances developed between these three branches. For example, the assemblies theoretically held all power, but were called and governed by the magistrates, who, controlling discussion, exercised dominating influence over them
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Constitution Of The Roman Empire
The CONSTITUTION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. After the fall of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the Roman Senate to the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
. Beginning with the first emperor, Augustus
Augustus
, the emperor and the senate were theoretically two co-equal branches of government. In practice, however, the actual authority of the imperial Senate was negligible, as the emperor held the true power of the state. During the reign of the second emperor, Tiberius
Tiberius
, many of the powers that had be