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Cabane Strut
In aeronautics, bracing comprises additional structural members which stiffen the functional airframe to give it rigidity and strength under load. Bracing may be applied both internally and externally, and may take the form of strut, which act in compression or tension as the need arises, and/or wires, which act only in tension. In general, bracing allows a stronger, lighter structure than one which is unbraced, but external bracing in particular adds drag which slows down the aircraft and raises considerably more design issues than internal bracing. Another disadvantage of bracing wires is that they require routine checking and adjustment, or rigging, even when located internally. During the early years of aviation, bracing was a universal feature of all forms of aeroplane, including the monoplanes and biplanes which were then equally common
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Aeronautics
Aeronautics
Aeronautics
(from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere
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Fokker D.VII
The Fokker
Fokker
D.VII was a German World War I
World War I
fighter aircraft designed by Reinhold Platz
Reinhold Platz
of the Fokker-Flugzeugwerke. Germany
Germany
produced around 3,300 D.VII aircraft in the second half of 1918. In service with the Luftstreitkräfte, the D.VII quickly proved itself to be a formidable aircraft
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National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)
The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park
Bushy Park
in Teddington, London, England. It is the largest applied physics organisation in the UK.Contents1 Description 2 Operation 3 Buildings 4 Researchers 5 Research5.1 Atomic clocks 5.2 Computing 5.3 Packet switching6 Directors of NPL 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksDescription[edit]The electricity Division of the National Physical Laboratory in 1944NPL is known for its UK leadership in measurement and materials science. Since 1900, when Bushy House
Bushy House
was selected as the site of NPL, it has developed and maintained the primary national measurement standards
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Richard Fairey
Sir Charles Richard Fairey
Charles Richard Fairey
MBE, also known as Richard Fairey FRAeS (5 May 1887 – 30 September 1956) was an English aircraft manufacturer.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Honours 4 References 5 BibliographyEarly life[edit]Ardingly CollegeCharles Fairey was born on 5 May 1887 in Hendon, Middlesex
Middlesex
and educated at the Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood
Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood
and Ardingly College, and later as an apprentice at the Finsbury Technical College where he studied City & Guilds courses in electrical engineering and chemistry. Fairey’s father had died when he was aged 11 and although from a middle-class background this dramatic change in the families circumstances led to Fairey taking a job, aged 15 with the Jandus Electric Company of London, who manufactured arc lamps
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J.W. Dunne
John William Dunne FRAeS (1875–1949) was a British soldier, aeronautical engineer and philosopher. As a young man he fought in the Second Boer War, before becoming a pioneering aeroplane designer in the early years of the 20th century. Dunne worked on automatically stable aircraft, many of which were of tailless swept wing design, to achieve the first certified stable aircraft
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SUGAR Volt
SUGAR Volt is a hybrid aircraft concept proposed by a team led by Boeing
Boeing
Research & Technology, a division of Boeing. It is one of a series of concepts put forward in response to a request for proposals for future aircraft issued by NASA. It is proposed that SUGAR Volt would use two hybrid turbofans that burn conventional jet fuel when taking off, then use electric motors to power the engines while flying. SUGAR stands for Subsonic Ultragreen Aircraft Research, the "volt" part of the "SUGAR Volt" name suggests that it would be at least partly powered by electricity. Environmental Impact[edit] SUGAR Volt would have emissions about 70 percent lower than average airliners today. Noise pollution will also be lower than airliners today. This hybrid-electric approach however remains to be balanced against increased complexity, large electric engine and battery size and weight
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Aspect Ratio (wing)
In aeronautics, the aspect ratio of a wing is the ratio of its span to its mean chord. It is equal to the square of the wingspan divided by the wing area
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Box Girder
A box or tubular girder is a girder that forms an enclosed tube with multiple walls, rather than an I or H-beam. Originally constructed of riveted wrought iron, they are now found in rolled or welded steel, aluminium extrusions or prestressed concrete. Compared to an I-beam, the advantage of a box girder is that it better resists torsion. Having multiple vertical webs, it can also carry more load than an I-beam
I-beam
of equal height (although it will use more material than a taller I-beam
I-beam
of equivalent capacity). The distinction in naming between a box girder and a tubular girder is imprecise. Generally the term box girder is used, especially if it is rectangular in section
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Chord (aircraft)
In aeronautics, chord refers to the imaginary straight line joining the leading and trailing edges of an aerofoil. The chord length is the distance between the trailing edge and the point on the leading edge where the chord intersects the leading edge.[1][2] The point on the leading edge that is used to define the chord can be defined as either the surface point of minimum radius,[2] or the surface point that will yield maximum chord length[citation needed]. The wing, horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer and propeller of an aircraft are all based on aerofoil sections, and the term chord or chord length is also used to describe their width
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Handley Page V/1500
The Handley Page
Handley Page
V/1500 was a British night-flying heavy bomber built by Handley Page
Handley Page
towards the end of the First World War. It was a large four-engined biplane, which resembled a larger version of Handley Page's earlier O/100 and O/400 bombers, intended to bomb Berlin
Berlin
from East Anglian airfields. The end of the war stopped the V/1500 being used against Germany, but a single aircraft was used to carry out the first flight from England
England
to India, and later carried out a bombing raid on Kabul
Kabul
during the Third Anglo-Afghan War. It was colloquially known within the fledgling Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
as the "Super Handley". The V/1500 which was shipped to Canada to attempt a transatlantic flight was flown in the USA beyond its flight to New York
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Curtiss JN-4
The Curtiss JN-4
Curtiss JN-4
"Jenny" was one of a series of "JN" biplanes built by the Curtiss Aeroplane Company of Hammondsport, New York, later the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company. Although the Curtiss JN series was originally produced as a training aircraft for the U.S
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Bamboo
The bamboos /bæmˈbuː/ ( listen) are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae. In bamboo, as in other grasses, the internodal regions of the stem are usually hollow and the vascular bundles in the cross section are scattered throughout the stem instead of in a cylindrical arrangement. The dicotyledonous woody xylem is also absent. The absence of secondary growth wood causes the stems of monocots, including the palms and large bamboos, to be columnar rather than tapering.[3] Bamboos include some of the fastest-growing plants in the world,[4] due to a unique rhizome-dependent system. Certain species of bamboo can grow 91 cm (36 in) within a 24-hour period, at a rate of almost 4 cm (1.6 in) an hour (a growth around 1 mm every 90 seconds, or 1 inch every 40 minutes).[5] Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family
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Albatros B.I
The Albatros B.I
Albatros B.I
was a German military reconnaissance aircraft designed in 1913 and which saw service during World War I.[1]Contents1 Design and development 2 Operational history 3 Operators 4 Survivors 5 Specifications (B.I) 6 See also 7 ReferencesDesign and development[edit] The B.I was a two-seat biplane of conventional configuration that seated the observer and the pilot in separate cockpits in tandem. The wings were originally of three-bay design, but were later changed to a two-bay, unstaggered configuration
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DFW B.I
The DFW B.I
DFW B.I
(factory designation MD 14), was one of the earliest German aircraft to see service during World War I, and one of the numerous "B-class" unarmed, two-seat observation biplanes of the German military in 1914, but with a distinctive appearance that differentiated it from contemporaries.[1] Though a biplane, its crescent-shaped three-bay wings were inspired by that of the earlier Rumpler Taube
Rumpler Taube
monoplane, and led to the DFW aircraft being named the Fliegende Banane ("Flying Banana") by its pilots. The B.II was similar but was built as a trainer
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Girder
A girder /ˈɡɜːrdər/ is a support beam used in construction.[1] It is the main horizontal support of a structure which supports smaller beams. Girders often have an I-beam
I-beam
cross section composed of two load-bearing flanges separated by a stabilizing web, but may also have a box shape, Z shape and other forms. A girder is commonly used to build bridges. In traditional timber framing a girder is called a girt. Small steel girders are rolled into shape. Larger girders (1 m/3 feet deep or more) are made as plate girders, welded or bolted together from separate pieces of steel plate.[2] The Warren type girder replaces the solid web with an open latticework between the flanges. This truss arrangement combines strength with economy of materials and can therefore be relatively light
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