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CPU
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s.[1] Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O
I/O
circuitry.[2] The form, design, and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged
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Harvard Mark I
The IBM
IBM
Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), called Mark I by Harvard
Harvard
University’s staff,[1] was a general purpose electromechanical computer that was used in the war effort during the last part of World War II. One of the first programs to run on the Mark I was initiated on 29 March 1944[2] by John von Neumann. At that time, von Neumann was working on the Manhattan project, and needed to determine whether implosion was a viable choice to detonate the atomic bomb that would be used a year later. The Mark I also computed and printed mathematical tables, which had been the initial goal of British inventor Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage
for his "analytical engine". The Mark I was disassembled in 1959, but portions of it are displayed in the Science Center as part of the Harvard
Harvard
Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments
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Vacuum Tube
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube,[1][2][3] or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container. Vacuum
Vacuum
tubes mostly rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or a heated cathode. This type is called a thermionic tube or thermionic valve. A phototube, however, achieves electron emission through the photoelectric effect. Not all electronic circuit valves/electron tubes are vacuum tubes (evacuated); gas-filled tubes are similar devices containing a gas, typically at low pressure, which exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases, usually without a heater. The simplest vacuum tube, the diode, contains only a heater, a heated electron-emitting cathode (the filament itself acts as the cathode in some diodes), and a plate (anode)
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Konrad Zuse
Konrad Zuse
Konrad Zuse
(German: [ˈkɔnʁat ˈtsuːzə]; 22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer. His greatest achievement was the world's first programmable computer; the functional program-controlled Turing-complete Z3 became operational in May 1941. Thanks to this machine and its predecessors, Zuse has often been regarded as the inventor of the modern computer.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Zuse was also noted for the S2 computing machine, considered the first process control computer. He founded one of the earliest computer businesses in 1941, producing the Z4, which became the world's first commercial computer
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Nanometre
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms
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Transistor
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor in 1926[1] but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time
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Manchester Mark 1
The Manchester Mark 1
Manchester Mark 1
was one of the earliest stored-program computers, developed at the Victoria University of Manchester
Victoria University of Manchester
from the Small-Scale Experimental Machine
Small-Scale Experimental Machine
(SSEM) or "Baby" (operational in June 1948). It was also called the Manchester Automatic Digital Machine, or MADM.[1] Work began in August 1948, and the first version was operational by April 1949; a program written to search for Mersenne primes ran error-free for nine hours on the night of 16/17 June 1949. The machine's successful operation was widely reported in the British press, which used the phrase "electronic brain" in describing it to their readers
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First Draft Of A Report On The EDVAC
The First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC
EDVAC
(commonly shortened to First Draft) is an incomplete 101-page document written by John von Neumann and distributed on June 30, 1945 by Herman Goldstine, security officer on the classified ENIAC
ENIAC
project. It contains the first published description of the logical design of a computer using the stored-program concept, which has controversially come to be known as the von Neumann architecture.Contents1 History 2 Synopsis2.1 Circuit design 2.2 Memory design 2.3 Orders (instructions)3 Controversy 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksHistory[edit]Title page the First Draft, copy belonging to Samuel N. Alexander, who developed the SEAC computer based on the report.The title page of the report[1] reads:First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC by John von Neumann, Contract No
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John Von Neumann
John von Neumann
John von Neumann
(/vɒn ˈnɔɪmən/; Hungarian: Neumann János Lajos, pronounced [ˈnɒjmɒn ˈjaːnoʃ ˈlɒjoʃ]; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath
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John William Mauchly
John William Mauchly (August 30, 1907 – January 8, 1980) was an American physicist who, along with J. Presper Eckert, designed ENIAC, the first general purpose electronic digital computer, as well as EDVAC, BINAC and UNIVAC
UNIVAC
I, the first commercial computer made in the United States. Together they started the first computer company, the Eckert-Mauchly Computer
Computer
Corporation (EMCC), and pioneered fundamental computer concepts including the stored program, subroutines, and programming languages
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J. Presper Eckert
John Adam Presper "Pres" Eckert Jr. (April 9, 1919 – June 3, 1995) was an American electrical engineer and computer pioneer. With John Mauchly he designed the first general-purpose electronic digital computer (ENIAC), presented the first course in computing topics (the Moore School
Moore School
Lectures), founded the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation, and designed the first commercial computer in the U.S., the UNIVAC, which incorporated Eckert's invention of the mercury delay line memory.Contents1 Education 2 Development of ENIAC 3 Entrepreneurship 4 Later career 5 "Eckert architecture" 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEducation[edit] Eckert was born in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to wealthy real estate developer John Eckert, and was raised in a large house in Philadelphia's Germantown section
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Stored-program Computer
A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.[1] Often the definition is extended with the requirement that the treatment of programs and data in memory be interchangeable or uniform.[2][3][4]Contents1 Description 2 History2.1 Candidates for the first stored-program computer3 See also 4 ReferencesDescription[edit] A computer with a von Neumann architecture stores program data and instruction data in the same memory; a computer with a Harvard architecture has separate memories for storing program and data.[5][6] Both are stored-program designs. Stored-program computer is sometimes used as a synonym for von Neumann architecture,[7][8] however Professor
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ENIAC
ENIAC
ENIAC
(/ˈiːniæk, ˈɛ-/; Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)[1][2] was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made
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EDVAC
EDVAC
EDVAC
(Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was one of the earliest electronic computers. Unlike its predecessor the ENIAC, it was binary rather than decimal, and was a stored-program computer. ENIAC
ENIAC
inventors John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert proposed the EDVAC's construction in August 1944. A contract to build the new computer was signed in April 1946 with an initial budget of US$100,000. EDVAC
EDVAC
was delivered to the Ballistics Research Laboratory in 1949. Functionally, EDVAC
EDVAC
was a binary serial computer with automatic addition, subtraction, multiplication, programmed division and automatic checking with an ultrasonic serial memory[1] capacity of 1,000 44-bit words
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Punched Tape
Punched tape
Punched tape
or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. Now effectively obsolete, it was widely used during much of the twentieth century for teleprinter communication, for input to computers of the 1950s and 1960s, and later as a storage medium for minicomputers and CNC machine tools.Contents1 Origin 2 Tape formats2.1 Dimensions 2.2 Chadless tape3 Applications3.1 Communications 3.2 Minicomputers 3.3 Data transfer for ROM and EPROM
EPROM
programming 3.4 Cash registers 3.5 Newspaper industry 3.6 Automated machinery 3.7 Cryptography4 Limitations 5 Advantages 6 Punched tape
Punched tape
in art 7 Current use 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksOrigin[edit]A paper tape, constructed from punched cards, in use in a Jacquard loom
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Peripheral
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer."[1] Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer:an input device sends data or instructions to the computer, such as a mouse, keyboard, graphics tablet, image scanner, barcode reader, game controller, light pen, light gun, microphone, digital camera, webcam, dance pad, and read-only memory); an output device provides output from the computer, such as a computer monitor, projector, printer, and computer speaker); and an input/output device performs both input and output functions, such as a computer data storage device (including a disk drive, USB flash drive, memory card, and tape drive) and a touchscreen).Many modern electronic devices, such as digital watches, smartphones, and tablet computers, have interfaces that allow them to be used as computer peripheral devices. See also[edit]Look up peripheral in Wi
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