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CIWS
A close-in weapon system (CIWS), often pronounced as SEE-wiz,[1] is a point-defense weapon system for detecting and destroying short-range incoming missiles and enemy aircraft which have penetrated the outer defenses, typically mounted shipboard in a naval capacity. Nearly all classes of modern warships are equipped with some kind of CIWS device. There are two types of CIWS systems. A gun-based CIWS usually consists of a combination of radars, computers, and multiple-barrel, rotary rapid-fire cannons placed on a rotating gun mount. Missile
Missile
systems use infra-red, passive radar/ESM or semi-active radar terminal guidance to guide missiles to the targeted enemy aircraft or other threats. In some cases, CIWS are used on land to protect military bases
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Rocket Propelled Grenade
A rocket-propelled grenade (often abbreviated RPG) is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead. Most RPGs can be carried by an individual soldier. These warheads are affixed to a rocket motor which propels the RPG towards the target and they are stabilized in flight with fins. Some types of RPG are reloadable with new rocket-propelled grenades, while others are single-use. RPGs, with some exceptions, are generally loaded from the muzzle.[1] RPGs with high explosive anti-tank warheads (HEAT) are very effective against armored vehicles such as armoured personnel carriers (APCs). However, heavily armored vehicles from the 2010s, such as main battle tanks, are generally too well armored (with thick composite and/or reactive armor) to be penetrated by an RPG, unless less armored sections of vehicle are exploited
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Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1][a] .mw-parser-ou
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Netherlands
The Netherlands
Netherlands
(Dutch: Nederland, [ˈneːdərlɑnt] (listen)) is a country located in Northwestern Europe
Northwestern Europe
with some overseas territories. In Europe, it consists of twelve provinces that border Germany
Germany
to the east, Belgium
Belgium
to the south, and the North Sea
North Sea
to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea
North Sea
with Belgium, Germany
Germany
and the United Kingdom.[11] Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
and Saba—it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Switzerland
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state situated in the confluence of western, central, and southern Europe.[9][note 4] It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities seated in Bern.[1][2][note 1] Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. It is geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau
Swiss Plateau
and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi), and land area of 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi)
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Active Protection System
An active protection system is a system (usually for a military application) designed to prevent line-of-sight guided anti-tank missiles/projectiles from acquiring and/or destroying a target. Electronic countermeasures
Electronic countermeasures
that alter the electromagnetic, acoustic or other signature(s) of a target thereby altering the tracking and sensing behavior of an incoming threat (e.g., guided missile) are designated soft-kill measures. Measures that physically counterattack an incoming thr
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Tank
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability. The first tanks were designed to overcome the deadlock of trench warfare; in the 2010s, they are a mainstay of modern ground forces and a key part of combined arms combat. Modern tanks are versatile mobile land weapon system platforms, mounting a large-calibre cannon in a rotating gun turret, supplemented by mounted machine guns or other weapons
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Drozd
Drozd
Drozd
("thrush" in Russian) is an active protection system developed in the Soviet Union, designed for increasing tanks' protection against anti-tank missiles and RPGs. It is considered the world's first operational active protection system,[1] created in 1977–78 by A. Shipunov's KBP design bureau as Kompleks 1030M-01. Drozd
Drozd
uses 24.5 GHz Doppler radar
Doppler radar
to detect incoming rounds travelling between 70 and 700 m/s (to avoid engaging small arms or other faster projectiles). Its computer determines when to fire a 107 mm projectile. When the incoming round is at 7 m range, the Drozd
Drozd
fragmentation warhead detonates, spreading 3-gram slugs to destroy the incoming round
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Surface-to-air Missile
A surface-to-air missile (SAM), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles. It is one type of antiaircraft system; in modern armed forces, missiles have replaced most other forms of dedicated antiaircraft weapons, with anti-aircraft guns pushed into specialized roles. The first serious attempts at SAM development took place during World War II, although no operational systems were introduced. Further development in the 1940s and 1950s led to the first operational systems being introduced by most major forces during the second half of the 1950s
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Soviet Naval Infantry
Russian–Swedish wars Russian–Turkish wars Napoleonic Wars Russo-Japanese War World War I Russian Civil War World War II First Chechen war Second Chechen war Russo-Georgian War MV Moscow
Moscow
University hijacking 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine Syrian Civil WarCommandersCommandant Lt.Gen. Alexander KolpachenkoNotable commanders Maj.Gen. Vladimir Romanenko Maj. Gen. Vladislav ChernomurovThe Russian Naval Infantry (Marines, Морская пехота, Morskaya Pekhota), is the amphibious force of the Russian Navy. The first Russian naval infantry force was formed in 1705, and since that time it has fought in the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, the Russo-Japanese War, and the First and Second World Wars
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Explosive Reactive Armour
Reactive armor is a type of vehicle armor that reacts in some way to the impact of a weapon to reduce the damage done to the vehicle being protected. It is most effective in protecting against shaped charges and specially hardened kinetic energy penetrators. The most common type is explosive reactive armour (ERA), but variants include self-limiting explosive reactive armour (SLERA), non-energetic reactive armour (NERA), non-explosive reactive armour (NxRA), and electric reactive armour. NERA and NxRA modules can withstand multiple hits, unlike ERA and SLERA, but a second hit in exactly the same location may potentially penetrate any of those. Essentially all anti-tank munitions work by piercing the armour and killing the crew inside, disabling vital mechanical systems, or both. Reactive armour
Reactive armour
can be defeated with multiple hits in the same place, as by tandem-charge weapons, which fire two or more shaped charges in rapid succession
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Arena (active Countermeasures System)
Arena (Russian: Арена) is an active protection system (APS) developed at Russia's Kolomna-based Engineering Design Bureau for the purpose of protecting armoured fighting vehicles from destruction by light anti-tank weapons, anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM), and missiles with top attack warheads. It uses a Doppler radar
Doppler radar
to detect incoming warheads. Upon detection, a defensive rocket is fired that detonates near the inbound threat, destroying it before it hits the vehicle. Arena is the successor to Drozd, a Soviet active protection system from the late 1970s, which was installed on several T-55s during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. The system improved the vehicle's survivability rate, increasing it by up to 80%. Drozd
Drozd
was followed by Shtora
Shtora
in the late 1980s, which used an electro-magnetic jammer to confuse inbound enemy anti-tank missiles and rockets
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Trophy Active Protection System
Trophy (also known as ASPRO-A, Israel
Israel
Defense Forces designation מעיל רוח, lit. "Windbreaker") is a military active protection system (APS) for vehicles. It intercepts and destroys incoming missiles and rockets with a shotgun-like blast. Trophy is the product of a ten-year collaborative development project between the Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and Israel
Israel
Aircraft Industries' Elta
Elta
Group. Its principal purpose is to supplement the armour of light and heavy armored fighting vehicles.Contents1 Design1.1 Advantages 1.2 Disadvantages 1.3 Trophy Light 1.4 Trophy LV 1.5 Combination with Iron Fist2 Tests by the United States 3 Combat history3.1 Operation Protective Edge4 Cost 5 Related 6 References 7 External linksDesign[edit] As of 2012[update], the system was being integrated onto Israeli Merkava
Merkava
main battle tanks
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